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Commit 55d47fdc authored by Júda Ronén's avatar Júda Ronén
Browse files

Version for language editing

parent 678ec596
......@@ -2,7 +2,6 @@
%TODO:
%לבדוק מספרי עמודים בדוגמאות
%לקרוא את הכל שוב
\input{preamble/preamble}
......@@ -13,5 +12,8 @@
\input{sections/ti-chi/main}
\input{sections/conclusion}
\printbibliography[heading=subbibliography]
%\printbibliography[heading=subbibliography]
\printbibheading
\printbibliography[heading=subbibliography, category=primary, title={Primary sources}]
\printbibliography[heading=subbibliography, notcategory=primary, title={Secondary literature}]
\end{document}
......@@ -10,6 +10,21 @@
\renewcommand*{\volnumpunct}{/}
\renewcommand*{\textcitedelim}{\addsemicolon\space}
\defbibheading{bibliography}[\bibname]{%
\section*{#1}%
\markboth{#1}{#1}}
\defbibheading{subbibliography}[\bibname]{%
\subsection*{#1}%
\markboth{#1}{#1}}
\DeclareBibliographyCategory{primary}
\addtocategory{primary}{%
roberts.k:1960:lon-wen,
rowling.j:2003:harri_maen,
rowling.j:2004:hp1,
}
\AtBeginDocument{\renewcommand*{\mkbibordedition}[1]{\nth{#1}}}
\DeclareDatafieldSet{nourlnoeditor}{\member[field=url]\member[field=editor]}
......
......@@ -6,4 +6,4 @@
\OnehalfSpacing
\setSingleSpace{0.95}
\counterwithout{section}{chapter}
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{4}
......@@ -7,12 +7,13 @@
\newcommand{\E}[1]{\emph{#1}}
\newcommand{\BH}[1]{{\fontspec{Gentium Italic}#1}}
\newcommand{\bibOldEnglish}[1]{{\fontspec{Junicode}#1}}
\newcommand{\bibWelsh}[1]{\C{#1}}
\newcommand{\bibWelsh}[1]{{#1}}
\newcommand{\bibIrish}[1]{\emph{#1}}
\newcommand{\bibHebrew}[1]{\bgroup\textdir TRT\fontspec[Script=Hebrew, ItalicFont={Days-Nights}, ItalicFeatures={Scale=0.95}]{Rutz_OE}#1\egroup}
\newcommand{\Heb}[1]{\bgroup \textdir TRT \fontspec[Script=Hebrew, ItalicFont={Days-Nights}, ItalicFeatures={Scale=0.95}]{Rutz_OE}#1\egroup}
%\usepackage{luabidi}
\newcommand{\Greek}[1]{\fontspec{Gentium}#1}
\newcommand{\IPA}[1]{{\fontspec{Gentium}#1}}
\newcommand{\grammar}[1]{\textsc{#1}}
\newcommand{\foreign}[1]{\emph{#1}}
......
\usepackage[nooverlap,latin]{ruby}
\renewcommand{\rubysize}{0.75}
\newcommand{\gl}[2]{\ruby{#1}{#2}}
\newcommand{\gl}[2]{\ruby{#1}{\normalfont #2}}
......@@ -13,11 +13,14 @@
\usepackage{xcolor}
%\usepackage{enumitem}
\usepackage{paralist}
\usepackage{enumitem}
\setlist{itemsep=0pt,topsep=0pt,parsep=0pt}
%\usepackage{paralist}
\usepackage{booktabs, tabularx}
\usepackage{hyphenat}
\usepackage{datetime}
\usepackage[all]{nowidow}
......@@ -2,5 +2,6 @@
\newcommand{\sectionornament}{\hspace{0.5em}{}\hspace{0.5em}}
\titleformat{\section}{\Large\SingleSpacing}{\textbf{\thesection}\sectionornament}{0.0cm}{}[\titleline{\color{lightgray}\titlerule}]
\titleformat{\subsection}{\large}{\textbf{\thesubsection}\sectionornament}{0.0cm}{}[\titleline{\color{lightgray}\titlerule}]
\titleformat{\subsubsection}{\normalsize}{\textbf{\thesubsubsection}\sectionornament}{0.0cm}{}[]
\titleformat{\subsubsection}{\normalsize}{\textbf{\thesubsubsection}\sectionornament}{0.0cm}{}[\titleline{\color{lightgray}\titlerule}]
\titleformat{\paragraph}{\normalsize}{\textbf{\theparagraph}\sectionornament}{0.0cm}{}[]
%\counterwithout{section}{chapter}
\section{Conclusion}
This paper examined a topic that shows a close connection between the literary and linguistic spheres.
The grammatical forms chosen in a piece of literature are inseparable from the content; in a translated work it is the translator who mediates the different linguistic and cultural systems in order to produce an idiomatic output.
The translator, then, takes part in a creative process; in the topic in question Emily Huws provided the readers with sociopragmatic information the original lacks.
The grammatical forms chosen in a piece of literature are inseparable from the content; in fact, they constitute a part of the content, in the broad sense.
In a translated work it is the translator who mediates the different linguistic and cultural systems in order to produce an idiomatic output, taking part in a creative process.
It is Emily Huws who provides the readers with linguistically encoded sociopragmatic information the original lacks.
The examination shows she did so in a manner that reflects both the linguistic norms of the target speech community and her understanding of the text, exercising her artistic freedom.
The study addressed some aspects of the Welsh T-V system in a particular corpus, not aiming to be exhaustive. Much is yet to be explored.
......@@ -11,15 +12,30 @@ The book whose translation constituted the corpus for examination~— \worktitle
This, combined with the fact that the book was translated into dozens of languages, makes it an apt candidate for typological cross-linguistic comparison, as discussed in \cref{sec:introduction}.
Comparing maps of \textsf{(speaker, addressee, address form)} tuples can reveal similarities and differences regarding the strategies different translators chose for different languages (see \textcite[288–290]{jentsch.n.k:2002:tower-babel} for a short comparison of the T-V system in the French, German and Spanish translations).
This comparison can yield valuable results if both each system as a whole and particular cases are taken into account.
Such particular cases can be, for examples, the different points in narrative where characters switch from one address form to the other; this might have to do with the social norms of the respective speech communities.
Such particular cases can be, for examples, the different points in narrative where specific characters switch from one address form to the other; this might have to do with the social norms of the respective speech communities.
Even though the original English text does not have a T-V system \foreign{per se}, the use of first names versus last names when characters address other characters is of prime relevance here.%
\footnote{For example, \E{Harry}, \E{Harry Potter}, \E{Mr H.\ Potter}, \E{Mr Potter} and \E{Potter} are all occur in the book referring to the protagonist.}
The first book was translated into more languages than the later ones (it is the only one translated into Welsh, for example), making it more suitable for a wide comparison than the other ones.%
\footnote{For example, \E{Harry}, \E{Harry Potter}, \E{Mr H.\ Potter}, \E{Mr Potter} and \E{Potter} all occur referring to the protagonist.}
The first book in the \C{Harry Potter} series was translated into more languages than the later ones (it is unfortunately the only one translated into Welsh, for example), making it more suitable for a wide comparison than the other ones.%
\footnote{An up-to-date list of translations is available at \url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Potter_in_translation}.}
The reader is cordially invited to take part in this typological comparative project and contribute data from translations of \worktitle{Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone} into languages that encode politeness and social relationships in second person marking, in a binary T-V system or otherwise.%
The reader is cordially invited to take part in the typological comparative project discussed in \cref{sec:introduction} by contributing data from translations of \worktitle{Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone} into languages that encode politeness and social relationships in second person marking, in a binary T-V system or otherwise.%
\footnote{The author’s contact information is available at
\ifthenelse{\equal{\copytype}{review}}
{[web address removed in the copy sent to review for the sake of anonymity].}
{\url{https://ac.digitalwords.net/}.}
The first stage is to gather data from each translation (in a systematic, computer-readable way, by using tags), followed by analysing the data, which allows typological comparison of the analyses of the different translations and particular cases of interest.
The first stage is to gather data from each translation (in a systematic, computer-readable way, by using tags), followed by analysing the data, which allows typological comparison of the analyses of the different translations and particular cases of interest. Since most occurrences of \E{you-} correlate with second person markers in the translations (and vice versa) and each occurrence is given a unique identifying number, the information provided in the tags can be compared across languages in a computer-assisted manner.
}
\subsection*{Acknowledgements}
\ifthenelse{\equal{\copytype}{review}}
{
[The acknowledgements were removed in the copy sent to review for the sake of anonymity].
}
{
I wish to thank
Adi Gilboa,
Linda Konnerth and
Erich Poppe
for their helpful comments on earlier drafts.
}
......@@ -4,20 +4,20 @@
A quick look at the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) map in \textcite{helmbrecht.j:2013:wals-45} shows that politeness distinction in the second person is a phenomenon found across the globe.
In its binary form ‘familiar:polite’ (\grammar{fam:hon})%
\footnote{The terms \emph{familiar/informal} and \emph{polite/honorific/formal} seem to be used in free variation in the literature, sometimes even in the same publication.
My choice of \grammar{fam}:\grammar{hon} and \emph{informal:polite} is after \textcite{helmbrecht.j:2013:wals-45}, for reasons of clarity, since WALS is used as a sort of a standard in typology.}
My choice of \grammar{fam}:\grammar{hon} and \emph{familiar:polite} is after \textcite{helmbrecht.j:2013:wals-45}, for reasons of clarity, since WALS is used as a sort of a standard in typology.}
it is most common in Europe, an areal characteristic encompassing Indo-European languages as well as languages from other families.
This binary form is usually called a ‘T-V distinction’, after Latin \foreign{} and \foreign{vōs}, which evolved respectively into \grammar{2sg.fam} (cf.\ Fr.\ \foreign{tu}) and \grammar{2sg.hon}/\grammar{2pl} (cf.\ Fr.\ \foreign{vous}) in descendant languages (see \textcite{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity} and \textcite[especially pp.~198–203, §~5.4.4]{brown.p+:1987:politeness} for general discussion regarding development and motivation).
This binary form is usually called a ‘T-V distinction’, after Latin \foreign{} and \foreign{vōs}, which evolved respectively into \grammar{2sg.fam} (cf.\ Fr.\ \foreign{tu}) and \grammar{2sg.hon}/\grammar{2pl} (cf.\ Fr.\ \foreign{vous}) in descendant languages (for general discussion regarding development and motivation, see \textcite{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity}, \textcite[especially pp.~198–203 in §~5.4.4]{brown.p+:1987:politeness} and \textcite{helmbrecht.j:2006:hoeflichkeitspronomina}).
Welsh has such a T-V distinction; English, on the other hand, does not distinguish politeness in person marking.
This paper describes features of this distinction in a book translated from English into Welsh: \worktitle{Harri Potter a Maen yr Athronydd} \parencite{rowling.j:2003:harri_maen}, a translation of \worktitle{Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone} \parencite{rowling.j:2004:hp1} made by Emily Huws, a children’s author from Caeathro.
When translating from English to Welsh, the translator was obliged to make politeness distinctions according to her understanding of the text in order to produce an idiomatic output.
This paper describes features of this distinction in a book translated into Welsh from English: \worktitle{Harri Potter a Maen yr Athronydd} \parencite{rowling.j:2003:harri_maen}, a translation of \worktitle{Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone} (\cite{rowling.j:2004:hp1}; the first book in the \C{Harry Potter} series) made by Emily Huws, a children’s author from Caeathro.
When translating from English into Welsh, the translator was obliged to make politeness distinctions according to her understanding of the text in order to produce an idiomatic output.
The aim of this paper is double:
Its primary purpose is to describe qualitatively some of the particularities of the T-V distinction in Welsh, as reflected in a specific translated text.
Its primary purpose is to describe qualitatively some of the particularities of the T-V distinction in Welsh, as reflected in the corpus.
Translated texts are to some degree different from other, ‘native’ varieties of language, such as original prose or spontaneous speech, but they have their own systematic linguistic features and constitute a valid and interesting variety of language.
Its secondary purpose is a more general one, to make first steps in a corpus-based typological cross-linguistic comparative project that makes use of \worktitle{Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone} as a parallel text%
\footnote{See \worktitle{Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung} 60.2 \parencite{stuf:2007:parallel}, an issue dedicated to linguistic analysis of parallel texts; in particular \textcite{cysouw.m+:2007:parallel-typology}, which introduces the notion ‘massively parallel text’ (a category of which our corpus is a member \foreign{par excellence}, being translated into 74 languages in total), and \textcite{stolz.t:2007:potter-prince}, which deals with \worktitle{Harry Potter} in particular (§~3 there).}
\footnote{See \worktitle{Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung} 60.2 \parencite{stuf:2007:parallel}, an issue dedicated to linguistic analysis of parallel texts; in particular \textcite{cysouw.m+:2007:parallel-typology}, which introduces the notion ‘massively parallel text’ (a category of which the described corpus is a member \foreign{par excellence}, being translated into 74 languages in total), and \textcite{stolz.t:2007:potter-prince}, which deals with \worktitle{Harry Potter} in particular (§~3 there).}
in exploring differences and similarities in the sociopragmatic encoding of politeness and social relationships in second person markers in the world’s languages.
The utilization of a massively parallel single long text as the data differentiates it from similar projects like the Melbourne Address Projects\footnote{\url{https://arts.unimelb.edu.au/rumaccc/research/melbourne-address-projects}}.
Despite having drawbacks \parencite[see][]{walchli.b:2007:advantages-disadvantages} as data, a shared text in translation can facilitate systematic charting of what parameters matter across different languages (and to different translators) in the distribution of T and V.
......@@ -29,10 +29,13 @@ The project is open research and the data files are freely available.%
{The tagged file for Welsh is available at \url{https://gitlab.com/rwmpelstilzchen/hp-tv/blob/master/research/welsh/english.xml}}
}
\par In recent years the question concerning the choice between T and V forms in translation has received scholarly attention in the context of film translations (either in dubbing or subtitling; AVT, audiovisual translation) \parencite[e.g.][]{pavesi.m:2009:pronouns, levshina.n:2017:multivariate, pavesi.m:2012:enriching, meister.l:2016:dilemma}, investigating the translators’ strategies in providing additional sociopragmatic information when translating from languages without a T-V distinction into languages that do have it.
Although the studied corpus was subject for linguistic inquiry \parencite{flohr.h:2013:potter} and the topic of the T-V distinction in other translations of \worktitle{Harry Potter} was touched upon by others \parencites[288–290]{jentsch.n.k:2002:tower-babel}[8]{wyler.l:2003:potter}[466]{feral.a-l:2006:magic-wand}, to the best of my knowledge no previous study dealt with the specific topic this paper focusses on.
In recent years the question concerning the choice between T and V forms in translation has received scholarly attention in the context of film translations (either in dubbing or subtitling; AVT, audiovisual translation), investigating the translators’ strategies in providing additional sociopragmatic information when translating from languages without a T-V distinction into languages that do have it \parencite[e.g.][]{pavesi.m:2009:pronouns, levshina.n:2017:multivariate, pavesi.m:2012:enriching, meister.l:2016:dilemma}.
The topic of the T-V distinction in translations of \worktitle{Harry Potter} was touched upon in Welsh \parencite[§~4.2.3]{pritchard.ff.h:2014:cyfieithu-tair} as well as in other languages
(e.g. \textcite[288–290]{jentsch.n.k:2002:tower-babel} for French, German and Spanish,
\textcite[8]{wyler.l:2003:potter} for Brazilian Portuguese and
\textcite[466]{feral.a-l:2006:magic-wand} for French).
Nevertheless, to the best of my knowledge no in-depth inquiry was made into the topic this paper focusses on in the Welsh translation.
......@@ -74,25 +77,25 @@ Thus, when encountering occurrences of English \E{you-} (\E{you}, \E{your}, etc.
\end{figure}
In the vast majority of cases \E{you-} is translated by a second person marker:
\begin{compactitem}
\begin{itemize}
\item if the speaker addresses one person, there exists a choice between \C{ti} (\grammar{2sg.fam}) and \C{chi} (\grammar{2sg.hon}).
This choice is the one dealt with in the main part of this paper (\cref{sec:ti-chi}).
This choice is the one dealt with in this paper (\cref{sec:ti-chi}).
\item if more than one person is addressed, there is no choice but \C{chi} (\grammar{2pl}).
\end{compactitem}
\end{itemize}
As English and Welsh have different phraseology, idiomatics and grammar, in a minority of occurrences second person markers in the source text are not reflected by second person markers in the translation, and vice versa.
As English and Welsh have different phraseology, idiomatics and grammar, in a minority of occurrences second person markers in the source text are not reflected by second person markers in the translation (‘\textsc{(non-personal)}’ in \cref{fig:choices}), and vice versa.
\cref{ex:you got,ex:angen,ex:rhywun,ex:thankyou,ex:tellyou} exemplify for the first direction:%
\footnote{%
\noindent\begin{minipage}[t]{\textwidth} % in order to ensure it stays on the same page
Technical notes concerning the examples:
\begin{compactitem}
\begin{itemize}[leftmargin=2em]
\item The page numbering indicates the page in the English text followed by the page in the Welsh text.
\item In \cref{ex:you got,ex:angen,ex:rhywun,ex:thankyou,ex:tellyou} the grammatical structure is central for discussion, so limited glosses are provided.
In the other examples, on the other hand, the choice between \C{ti} and \C{chi} is the most relevant piece of information.
In order to make the paper accessible, simple typographical annotation is provided:
\C{ti} is indicated in the Welsh text by bold letters (so: \hlti{arnat} ‘on you (\C{ti}-form)’), \C{chi} by bold small capital letters;
corresponding English \C{you-} is indicated by bold letters (so: \hlchisg{arnoch} ‘on you (\C{chi}-form)’).
\end{compactitem}
\C{ti} is indicated in the Welsh text by bold letters (so: \hlti{arnat} ‘on you (\C{ti}-form)’), \C{chi} by bold small capital letters (so: \hlchisg{arnoch} ‘on you (\C{chi}-form)’);
corresponding English \C{you-} is indicated by bold letters.
\end{itemize}
\end{minipage}
}
......@@ -102,7 +105,7 @@ In \cref{ex:you got} there is a difference in grammar, not using a second person
{
\bi
{‘How many days \hlyou{you} got left until yer holidays?’ Hagrid asked.}
{\gl{Sawl}{how\_many} \gl{dwrnod}{day} \gl{eto}{yet} \gl{tan}{until} \gl{’ych}{\grammar{2pl.poss}} \gl{gwylia}{holiday.\grammar{pl}} \gl{chi}{\grammar{circ}}?’ gofynnodd Hagrid.}
{\gl{Sawl}{how\_many} \gl{dwrnod}{day} \gl{eto}{yet} \gl{tan}{until} \gl{’ych}{\grammar{2pl.poss}} \gl{gwylia}{holiday:\grammar{pl}} \gl{chi}{\grammar{circ}}?’ gofynnodd Hagrid.}
}
\noindent
......@@ -122,7 +125,7 @@ In \cref{ex:rhywun} an impersonal \E{you} and \E{your} are reflected by \C{rhywu
{
\bi
{‘Blasted thing,’ Snape was saying. ‘How are \hlyou{you} supposed to keep \hlyou{your} eyes on all three heads at once?’}
{‘Damia fo!’ meddai Sneip. ‘\gl{Sut}{how} \gl{mae}{is} \gl{bosib}{possible} \gl{i}{for} \gl{rywun}{someone} \gl{gadw}{keep:\grammar{inf}} \gl{llygad}{eye} ar y tri phen ar unwaith?’}
{‘Damia fo!’ meddai Sneip. ‘\gl{Sut}{how} \gl{mae}{is} \gl{bosib}{possible} \gl{i}{for} \gl{rywun}{someone} \gl{gadw}{keep:\grammar{inf}} \gl{llygad}{eye} \gl{ar}{on} \gl{y}{the} \gl{tri}{three} \gl{phen}{head} \gl{ar}{on} \gl{unwaith}{once}?’}
}
\noindent
......@@ -138,40 +141,27 @@ In \cref{ex:rhywun} an impersonal \E{you} and \E{your} are reflected by \C{rhywu
\example{4}{41}{38}{}{tellyou}
{
\bi
{‘Call me Hagrid,’ he said, ‘everyone does. An’ like I told \hlyou{yeh}, I’m Keeper of Keys at Hogwarts yeh’ll know all about Hogwarts, o’ course.’}
{‘Call me Hagrid,’ he said, ‘everyone does. An’ like I told \hlyou{yeh}, I’m Keeper of Keys at Hogwarts~— yeh’ll know all about Hogwarts, o’ course.’}
{‘Hagrid ma’ pawb yn ’y ngalw i,’ meddai. ‘Gwna ditha hefyd. \gl{Ac}{and} \gl{fel}{as} \gl{dudish}{speak:\grammar{pst.1sg}} \gl{i}{\grammar{1sg}}, fi ydi Ceidwad Allweddi Hogwarts~— glywaist ti am Hogwarts, wrth gwrs?}
}
A major class of cases in which Welsh has an overt second person marking but English has a zero is the imperatives. Like in any other second person marking in Welsh, the \C{ti:chi} distinction occurs in imperatives as well.
There are two main strategies employed when translating occurrences of an impersonal (or ‘generic’) \E{you-} \parencite[see][]{kitagawa.ch+:1990:impersonal-personal,helmbrecht.j:2015:non-prototypical}.
One is to use an impersonal second person in Welsh as well.
One is to use an impersonal second person in Welsh as well \parencite[see][§~3.2.4]{flohr.h:2013:potter}.
These uses of second person reflect the sociopragmatic interpersonal relation between the speaker and the addressee through the \C{ti:chi} distinction just like in actual, referential usage.
The other strategy is to rephrase the text so it does not have a person marker but a zero or an overt non-personal element%
\footnote{Usually \C{rhywun} ‘someone’, with one instance of \C{neb} ‘anyone, no one’ and one of \C{pobl} ‘people’.}.
\footnote{Usually \C{rhywun} ‘someone’, with one instance of \C{neb} ‘anyone, no one’ and one of \C{pobl} ‘people’.};
\Cref{ex:angen,ex:rhywun} are of this type.
\subsection{Methodology}
The method for gathering the data for analysis is quite straightforward.
The method of gathering the data for analysis is quite straightforward.
The first stage was to write down how each character addresses the other characters in the translation.
Since the vast majority of occurrences of \E{you-} correlate with second person markers in the translation and vice versa, this was done by digitally tagging all occurrences of \E{you-} with the tuple \textsf{(speaker, addressee, address form)}.%
\footnote{1393 occurrences in total~—
\E{you:} 1034,
\E{your:} 148,
\E{yeh:} 121,
\E{yer:} 60,
\E{yourself:} 14,
\E{yours:} 8,
\E{yourselves:} 5,
\E{yerself:} 2,
\E{yerselves:} 1.
\E{yeh} and \E{yer-} are West Country dialectal forms, used by the character Hagrid.
The tagged file is available at the above web address as a part of the open research project (see~\cref{fn:english.xml}).%
}
\begin{table}[htb]
Since the vast majority of occurrences of \E{you-}
\begin{table}[htb] % The table is located here in order to avoid a widow. This is an ugly hack.
\bgroup
\small
% an ugly workaround, but it works…
......@@ -192,13 +182,27 @@ The tagged file is available at the above web address as a part of the open rese
\end{tabularx}
\egroup
\caption{%
a fragment of the table representing\newline
A fragment of the table representing\newline
the address forms used in the corpus
}
\label{tab:fragment}
\end{table}
From these tags a long table was derived by an automated script (see \cref{tab:fragment} for a representative fragment).
correlate with second person markers in the translation and vice versa, this was done by digitally tagging all occurrences of \E{you-}%
\footnote{1393 occurrences in total~—
\E{you:} 1034,
\E{your:} 148,
\E{yeh:} 121,
\E{yer:} 60,
\E{yourself:} 14,
\E{yours:} 8,
\E{yourselves:} 5,
\E{yerself:} 2,
\E{yerselves:} 1.
\E{yeh} and \E{yer-} are West Country dialectal forms, used by the character Hagrid.
The tagged file is available at the above web address as a part of the open research project (see~\cref{fn:english.xml}).%
}
in a file containing the English text with the tuple \textsf{(speaker, addressee, address form)}, where \textsf{address form} reflects the Welsh address form in the translation.
From these tags a long table was derived using an automated script (see \cref{tab:fragment} for a representative fragment).
Then information from imperatives and other instances in which a second person marker in the translation does not correlate with \E{you-} was added.%
\footnote{Such as \C{\gl{os}{if} \gl{gweli}{see:\grammar{prs}.\grammar{2sg}} \gl{di}{\grammar{2sg}}\gl{’n}{in} \gl{dda}{good}} (\C{ti}-form) and \C{os gwelwch chi’n dda} (\C{chi}-form), translating \E{please} (lit.\ ‘if you see well’ or ‘if you see fit’).}
This table represents the intricate map of sociopragmatic relationships in the text, as expressed through the \C{ti:chi} distinction.
Then, information from imperatives and other instances in which a second person marker in the translation does not correlate with \E{you-}%
\footnote{Such as \C{os gweli di’n dda} (\C{ti} form) and \C{os gwelwch chi’n dda} (\C{chi} form), translating \E{please} (lit.\ ‘if you see well’ or ‘if you see fit’).}
was added.
\subsection{Age and status}
\label{sec:age}
\begin{samepage} % So that the table doesn’t go between the paragraph and the list
Belonging to the boarding school story genre, the corpus offers an opportunity to examine the linguistic expression of social relationships in which age and status play a major role. These topics are discussed:
\begin{compactitem}
\begin{itemize}
\item social relations within the school (\cref{sec:students and teachers}),
\item different kinds of family units (\cref{sec:families}),
\item the special place Harry Potter has within the wizard community (\cref{sec:chi-ing Harry}).
\end{compactitem}
\end{itemize}
\end{samepage}
......@@ -47,20 +49,25 @@ Staff members of equal status address each other with \C{ti} and their superiors
The address forms teachers use when speaking to students show diversity:
in most cases students are addressed with \C{chi}, while in two cases Neville is addressed with \C{ti} and Harry is regularly addressed so by Dumbledore.
First we discuss the \C{chi} cases, and then the \C{ti} ones.
The \C{chi} cases are discussed first, followed \C{ti} ones.
\paragraph{Teachers addressing students with \C{chi}}
\noindent
The fact teachers use \C{chi} when speaking to students might seem unexpected, since students rank lower in the school hierarchy.
According to \textcite[§~4.130]{thomas.p:2006:gramadeg} in the 1960s students and teachers used \C{chi} reciprocally\, and this was changed later so that an irreciprocal relationship is now more common.
One possible explanation for this reciprocal use of \C{chi} is for signalling social distance, even though the difference in power is excepted \foreign{a priori} to cause irreciprocal use \parencite[see][]{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity}.
So, since it seems that the main \emph{teacher \toarrow\ student} address form represents the use of the 1960s and the book is set in the 1990s, it raises a question concerning linguistic anachronism.
Two factors could contribute to this choice:
One possible explanation for this reciprocal use of \C{chi} is that it signals social distance, even though the difference in power is excepted \foreign{a priori} to cause irreciprocal use \parencite[see][]{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity}.
So, since it seems that the main \emph{teacher \toarrow\ student} address form represents the use of the 1960s while the book is set in the 1990s, it raises a question concerning linguistic anachronism.
\textcite[84]{pritchard.ff.h:2014:cyfieithu-tair} suggests this has to do with Hogwarts being a boarding school, and as such it is more formal than common British schools.
Two other factors could contribute to this choice as well:
one is that this is what the translator, who was born in 1942, is used to from her days at school;
the other is that Hogwarts, being an old-fashioned school in every aspect, is linguistically presented as such.
%Non-teacher staff usually use \C{ti} towards students.
In order to understand \cref{ex:Quirrell-Harry-B} better, first we examine \cref{ex:ylw}, which is from another corpus \parencite{roberts.k:1960:lon-wen}.
The situation depicted in it took place at the beginning of the \nth{20} century.
In this example a headmaster addresses a student with \C{chi} just before caning her.%
Examining \cref{ex:ylw} first can facilitate understanding \cref{ex:Quirrell-Harry-B}.
The situation depicted in this example~— which is from another corpus, \textcite{roberts.k:1960:lon-wen}~— took place at the beginning of the \nth{20} century: a headmaster addressing a student with \C{chi} just before caning her.%
\footnote{According to the preceding and following passages, she was 10–15 years old (1901–1906) when it happened.}
\bareexample{Y Lôn Wen \parencite[{ch.~1}]{roberts.k:1960:lon-wen}; translation: Gillian Clarke \parencite{roberts.k:2009:white-lane}}{}{ylw}
......@@ -111,12 +118,17 @@ In the same scene Voldemort, the antagonist, addresses Harry with \C{ti} in \cre
‘[…] Yr wythnosau diwethaf yma fe’m cryfhawyd gan waed uncorn… \hlti{welaist ti} Quirrél ffyddlon yn ei yfed i mi yn y Goedwig… ac unwaith y bydd Elicsir Bywyd gen i, byddaf yn medru creu fy nghorff fy hun… Nawr… pam na \hlti{roi di}’r Maen yna sydd yn \hlti{dy} boced i mi?’}
}
Now we turn to examine the cases in which teachers address students with \C{ti}, beginning with Neville, who is addressed this way by Madam Hooch the flying teacher in \cref{ex:Hooch-Neville} and Professor Snape the potions teacher in \cref{ex:Snape-Neville}.
In both examples this happens just after he acted very clumsily, which resulted in him ending up in the hospital wing and causing mayhem in class.
Therefore, it is quite understandable why these teachers did not address him using \C{chi} in these particular situations.
\paragraph{Teachers addressing students with \C{ti}}
\noindent
Neville is addressed with \C{ti} by teachers in two situations: by Madam Hooch the flying teacher in \cref{ex:Hooch-Neville} and by Professor Snape the potions teacher in \cref{ex:Snape-Neville}.
In both examples this happens just after he acts very clumsily, which resulted in him ending up in the hospital wing and causing mayhem in class.
Therefore, it is quite understandable why these teachers do not address him using \C{chi} in these particular situations.
The choice of pronominal address forms is reinforced by nominal ones in both cases, reflecting the difference in the two teacher’s attitude:
Madam Hooch calls Neville \emph{boy} (\C{hogyn}) and \emph{dear} (\C{’ngwas i}, not quoted here), endearingly;
Professor Snape on the other hand calls him \emph{idiot boy} (\C{hogyn hurt}), disaffectionately\footnote{Compare this with commanding Seamus, at whom he is not so angry, using a \C{chi} form: \C{\hlchisg{Ewch} ag o i’r ysbyty} ‘Take him up to the hospital wing’.}.
Professor Snape on the other hand calls him \emph{idiot boy} (\C{hogyn hurt}), disaffectionately\footnote{Compare this with commanding Seamus, at whom he is not so angry, using a \C{chi}-form (\C{ewch}): \C{Ewch ag o i’r ysbyty} ‘Take him up to the hospital wing’.}.
\example{9}{109}{116}{}{Hooch-Neville}
{
......@@ -133,7 +145,7 @@ Professor Snape on the other hand calls him \emph{idiot boy} (\C{hogyn hurt}), d
{[…]}
\bi
{‘Broken wrist,’ Harry heard her mutter. ‘Come on, boy it’s all right, up \hlyou{you} get.’ }
{‘Broken wrist,’ Harry heard her mutter. ‘Come on, boy~— it’s all right, up \hlyou{you} get.’ }
{‘Wedi torri’i arddwrn,’ clywodd Harri hi’n mwngial. ‘\hlti{Ty’d} ’laen, hogyn~— popeth yn iawn, \hlti{cod} ar \hlti{dy} draed.’}
}
......@@ -161,7 +173,7 @@ In these occasions they speak alone (or quietly enough so no one else can hear t
Dumbledore addresses Harry with more than sixty occurrences of pronominal address, all of which using \C{ti}.
This systematic choice possibly signals a special closeness, not considering Harry as any other Hogwarts student to be addressed by the distancing \C{chi}.
This accords with the fact that Dumbledore in the original English text calls him \emph{Harry} throughout the book, while the teachers (Flitwick, McGonagall, Snape and Quirrell) call him \emph{Potter}.
The distinction between first name address and last name address has sociolinguistic similarities with the T-V distinction.
The distinction between first name address and last name address has sociolinguistic similarities with T-V distinctions.
This characteristic of Dumbledore is but one of his peculiarities, some of which are linguistic.
......@@ -169,15 +181,17 @@ This characteristic of Dumbledore is but one of his peculiarities, some of which
\subsubsection{Children and their (adoptive) parents}
\label{sec:families}
In addition to the difference between generations regarding the use of \C{ti} and \C{chi} in schools (\cref{sec:students and teachers}), \textcite{thomas.p:2006:gramadeg} states in the same passage that a development in the opposite direction is the strong tendency of reciprocal use of \C{ti} between parents and children, whereas in older generations it was common for parents to speak to their children with \C{ti} and to receive \C{chi}.
In addition to the difference between generations regarding the use of \C{ti} and \C{chi} in schools (\cref{sec:students and teachers}), \textcite{thomas.p:2006:gramadeg} presents in the same passage a development in the opposite direction:
there is a strong tendency for reciprocal use of \C{ti} between parents and children in contemporary%
\footnote{\textcite{thomas.p:2006:gramadeg} was first published in 1996.}
Welsh, whereas in older generations it was common for parents to speak to their children with \C{ti} and to receive \C{chi}.
There are two families represented speaking in the text:
Two families are represented speaking in the text:
the Dursley family (mother Petunia, father Vernon, their biological son Dudley and their adopted son Harry Potter) and
the Weasley family (mother Molly and her children talk a little at the train station).
Their use of \C{ti} and \C{chi} differs, and represents two distinct types of families.
Molly Weasley addresses her children with \C{ti} and they address her the same way, as demonstrated in \cref{ex:Fred=Molly}.
This is the common way people talk in contemporary Welsh (Thomas’s book was first published in 1996).
\example{6}{70}{72}{}{Fred=Molly}
{
......@@ -186,7 +200,7 @@ This is the common way people talk in contemporary Welsh (Thomas’s book was fi
{‘Fred, \hlchdi{chdi} nesa,’ meddai’r wraig nobl.}
\bi
{‘I’m not Fred, I’m George,’ said the boy. ‘Honestly, woman, call \hlyou{yourself} our mother? Can’t you tell I’m George?’}
{‘I’m not Fred, I’m George,’ said the boy. ‘Honestly, woman, call \hlyou{yourself} our mother? Can’t \hlyou{you} tell I’m George?’}
{‘George ydw i, nid Fred,’ meddai’r bachgen. ‘A \hlti{tithau}’n \hlti{dy} alw \hlti{dy} hun yn fam inni, wir! \hlti{Wyddost ti} ddim mai George ydw i?’}
%
% \bi
......@@ -203,9 +217,10 @@ This is elegantly demonstrated in \cref{ex:Vernon-Dudley-Harry}, which shows con
Vernon talks with Dudley (\C{ti}, \nth{1} line),
Dudley with Vernon (\C{ti}, \nth{2} line),
Vernon with Harry (\C{ti}, \nth{3} line) and
Harry with Vernon (\C{chi}, \nth{4} line).
Harry with Vernon (\C{chi}, \nth{4} line);
see also \textcite[83]{pritchard.ff.h:2014:cyfieithu-tair}.
\example{2}{29}{26}{}{Vernon-Dudley-Harry}
\example{3}{29}{26}{}{Vernon-Dudley-Harry}
{
\bi
{‘Get the post, Dudley,’ said Uncle Vernon from behind his paper.}
......@@ -225,25 +240,24 @@ Harry with Vernon (\C{chi}, \nth{4} line).
}
\noindent
This split parent-child relationship is a linguistic expression of the unloving attitude of the Dursleys towards their adopted son as opposed to their loving one towards their biological son.%
\footnote{%
It is worth noting that the traditional irreciprocal use of \C{ti} and \C{chi} within the family (\posscite{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity} \emph{power} relation), which still exists today, doesn’t mean the relationship within the family is not a loving one.
It is this differentiation between children that essentially alienates Harry:
in this family Harry talks to his adopting parents as if they were strangers.
}
Treating Harry not as a full member of the family can be seen in everything the Dursleys do.%
This split parent-child relationship is a linguistic expression of the unloving attitude of the Dursleys towards their adopted son as opposed to their loving one towards their biological son.
Treating Harry not as a full member of the family can be seen in everything the Dursleys do \parencite[see][45]{lavoie.c:2003:houses}.%
\footnote{In fact, Vernon explicitly says so at the very end of the book:
when Molly Weasley meets the Dursleys and says ‘You must be Harry’s family!’ (\C{Chi ydi teulu Harri, mae’n rhaid!}) Vernon replies ‘In a manner of speaking’ (\C{Mewn ffordd o siarad}).
when Molly Weasley meets the Dursleys and says ‘You must be Harry’s family!’ \C{(Chi ydi teulu Harri, mae’n rhaid!)} Vernon replies ‘In a manner of speaking’ \C{(Mewn ffordd o siarad)}.
}
While the traditional irreciprocal use of \C{ti} and \C{chi} within the family (\posscite{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity} \emph{power} relation) continues to this day to some extent,%
\footnote{I would like to thank Samuel Jones for informing me about this (personal communication, 2018).}
this is not the case with the Dursleys: it is the \emph{differentiation} between children in the same household that essentially alienates Harry, not the irreciprocal use \foreign{per se} (if Dudley were to speak with \C{chi} to his parents as well, there would be no differentiation and alienation).
\subsubsection{Harry’s place within the wizard community}
\subsubsection{Harry Potter’s place within the wizard community}
\label{sec:chi-ing Harry}
The first part of the book revolves around one main theme:
how Harry~— a neglected, abused and unpopular child in the ‘Muggle’ (non-magical) world~— turns up to be an admired wizard in the magical community, in a manner not unlike Andersen’s \worktitle{Ugly Duckling}.
The respect people show Harry, who has defeated the dreaded Voldemort (albeit unknowingly), is expressed both by literary and linguistic means.
This was demonstrated earlier in \cref{ex:Firenze-Harry} (\cref{sec:shift}), where Firenze shifts from \C{ti} to \C{chi} once he realizes he is speaking with Harry.
This has been demonstrated earlier in \cref{ex:Firenze-Harry} (\cref{sec:shift}), where Firenze shifts from \C{ti} to \C{chi} once he realizes he is speaking with Harry.
The transformation is most pronounced at the Leaky Cauldron pub, the portal into the Wizarding World, in a scene where many strangers come and greet Harry when he arrives there, delighted to see him, a scene whose main literary purpose is to highlight the difference in attitude towards the protagonist between the two worlds.
In the English text they address him as \emph{Mr Potter}%
......@@ -270,7 +284,7 @@ It should be noted that it is not usual for adults to address children with \C{c
{‘Braint fawr, y Bonwr Potter, braint fawr.’}
\bi
{‘Always wanted to shake \hlyou{your} hand I’m all of a flutter.’}
{‘Always wanted to shake \hlyou{your} hand~— I’m all of a flutter.’}
{‘Wedi dyheu erioed am gael ysgwyd llaw efo \hlchisg{chi}~— dwi wedi cynhyrfu’n lân!’}
\bi
......@@ -279,14 +293,14 @@ It should be noted that it is not usual for adults to address children with \C{c
}
After this scene Harry and Hagrid go to buy school equipment for Harry.
\cref{ex:Malkin-Harry} demonstrates how a seller who does not recognize Harry addresses him with \C{ti}, while in \cref{ex:Ollivander-Harry} Ollivander the wand-maker do recognize him.
In \cref{ex:Ollivander-Hagrid} he recognizes Hagrid, whom he does not hold in high esteem;
In \cref{ex:Malkin-Harry} it is demonstrated how a seller who does not recognize Harry addresses him with \C{ti}, while in \cref{ex:Ollivander-Harry} Ollivander the wand-maker does recognize him and addresses him with \C{chi}.
This use of \C{chi} towards Harry is highlighted in contrast with Hagrid in \cref{ex:Ollivander-Hagrid}, whom Ollivander does not hold in high esteem;
he addresses him with \C{ti}, not forgetting to remind him he was expelled from Hogwarts…
\example{5}{59}{60}{}{Malkin-Harry}
{
\bi
{‘Hogwarts, dear?’ she said, when Harry started to speak. ‘Got the lot here another young man being fitted up just now, in fact.’}
{‘Hogwarts, dear?’ she said, when Harry started to speak. ‘Got the lot here~— another young man being fitted up just now, in fact.’}
{‘Hogwarts, ’ngwas i?’ meddai hi, cyn gynted ag yr agorodd Harri ei geg. ‘Mae’r cwbl gen i yn fan’ma~— a dweud y gwir mae ’na ŵr ifanc arall yn cael ei ffitio ar y funud hefyd.’}
\bi
......@@ -320,7 +334,7 @@ he addresses him with \C{ti}, not forgetting to remind him he was expelled from
%{Ysgydwodd ei ben ac yna, er rhyddhad i Harri, sylwodd ar Hagrid.}
%
\bi
{‘Rubeus! Rubeus Hagrid! How nice to see \hlyou{you} again ... Oak, sixteen inches, rather bendy, wasn’t it?’}
{‘Rubeus! Rubeus Hagrid! How nice to see \hlyou{you} again~… Oak, sixteen inches, rather bendy, wasn’t it?’}
{‘Rubeus! Rubeus Hagrid! Dda gen i \hlti{dy} weld \hlti{di} eto… derw, un fodfedd ar bymtheg, eithaf ystwyth, yntê?’}
\bi
......
......@@ -3,11 +3,11 @@
By analysing the collected data three topics are addressed in this paper:
\begin{compactitem}
\begin{itemize}
\item shift in address form (\cref{sec:shift}),
\item addressing someone hidden or non-specific (\cref{sec:unmarked-chi}),
\item the relationship between children and grown-ups (\cref{sec:age}).
\end{compactitem}
\end{itemize}
\input{sections/ti-chi/shift}
\input{sections/ti-chi/unmarked-chi}
......
\subsection{Shift in address form}
\label{sec:shift}
One immediate result of compiling the said map is pairs of \textsf{speaker} and \textsf{addressee} that occur with a different \textsf{address form} in different rows.
As the relationships between characters are not set in stone, a change in the relationship can be reflected in transitioning from one address form to the other or be signalled by it \parencite[see][]{pavesi.m:2012:enriching}.
One immediate result of compiling the said table is pairs of \textsf{speaker} and \textsf{addressee} that occur with a different \textsf{address form} in different rows.
As the relationships between characters are not set in stone, a change in the relationship can be reflected in shifting from one address form to the other or be signalled by it \parencite[see][]{pavesi.m:2012:enriching}.
For example, when the child protagonist Harry meets the character Hagrid, the latter is a grown-up man whom he doesn’t know.
It is not surprising, then, that he addresses him at first using the polite \C{chi} in \cref{ex:Harry-Hagrid-A}, since it is usual for children to address stranger grown-ups so.
It is not surprising, then, that he addresses him at first using the polite \C{chi} in \cref{ex:Harry-Hagrid-A}, since it is usual for children to address unknown grown-ups so.
But as Hagrid tells his story and the close connection between them is revealed, Harry shifts to using the familiar \C{ti} in \cref{ex:Harry-Hagrid-B}, which he continues to do throughout the book.
Hagrid’s friendly tone and behaviour towards Harry and his colloquial speech contribute to the shift.
......@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ Hagrid’s friendly tone and behaviour towards Harry and his colloquial speech c
%{Yn y cyfamser, roedd gan Harri gwestiynau i’w gofyn, cannoedd ohonyn nhw.}
%
\bi
{‘But what happened to Vol sorry I mean, \hlyou{You}-Know-Who?’}
{‘But what happened to Vol sorry~— I mean, \hlyou{You}-Know-Who?’}
{‘Ond beth ddigwyddodd i Vol~— ddrwg gen i~— \hlti{Wyddost-Ti}-Pwy, dwi’n feddwl?’}
}
......@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ of Hagrid and the students Harry, Hermione and Ron develops over time Hermione s
In \cref{ex:Hermione-Hagrid-A} she addresses him with \C{chi}, but three chapters later, in \cref{ex:Hermione-Hagrid-B}, she begins to address him with \C{ti}.
The choice of \C{ti} here is affected by the context of this utterance as well:
Hermione uses it as a rhetorical device in flattering, linguistically signalling closeness%
\footnote{Akin to \posscite{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity}, \emph{solidarity} signalled by reciprocal use of T-V pronouns.},
\footnote{Akin to \posscite{brown.r+:1960:power-solidarity} \emph{solidarity}, signalled by reciprocal use of T-V pronouns.},
in the hope it will help her to extract the information from him. Once the shift is done, she continues to address him with \C{ti} from then on.
\example{11}{141}{151}{}{Hermione-Hagrid-A}
......@@ -55,10 +55,11 @@ in the hope it will help her to extract the information from him. Once the shift
{‘O, \hlti{ty’d} ’laen, Hagrid, ella nad \hlti{wyt ti} ddim isio dweud wrthon ni, ond \hlti{\emph{rwyt} ti}’n gwybod. \hlti{Rwyt ti}’n gwybod \emph{popeth} sy’n digwydd yn y lle yma,’ meddai Hermione, a’i llais yn fêl i gyd. Sbonciodd barf Hagrid. Roedd yn ddigon hawdd dweud ei fod yn gwenu.}
}
But not all \C{chi} to \C{ti} shifts signal the same kind of relation shift.
The analogous transition when Vernon Dursley, Harry’s adoptive father, speaks to Hagrid bears a completely different meaning.
In a situation where Hagrid enters a shack where the Dursleys and Harry stay, Vernon keeps distance from Hagrid at first and politely~– yet decisively~– demands him to leave, \cref{ex:Vernon-Hagrid-A}.
Hagrid stays and talks with Harry, but the moment Hagrid is going to tell Harry the secret Vernon fears the most (that Harry is a wizard and his parents, who were wizards as well, were killed magically), all politeness is gone and his speech turns harsh and straightforward in \cref{ex:Vernon-Hagrid-B}.
Not all \C{chi} to \C{ti} shifts signal the same kind of interpersonal relation shift.
The formally analogous transition when Vernon Dursley, Harry’s adoptive father, speaks to Hagrid bears a completely different meaning.
In \cref{ex:Vernon-Hagrid-A}, after Hagrid enters a shack where the Dursleys and Harry stay, Vernon keeps distance from Hagrid at first and politely~— yet decisively~— demands him to leave.
Hagrid stays and talks with Harry.
The moment Hagrid is about to tell Harry the secret Vernon fears the most (that Harry is a wizard and his parents, who were wizards as well, were killed magically), all politeness is gone and Vernon’s speech turns harsh and straightforward in \cref{ex:Vernon-Hagrid-B}, in which \C{taw} ‘be silent!’ and \C{paid} ‘don’t!’ are imperative \C{ti}-forms (contrasting with the imperative \C{chi}-forms \C{tewch} and \C{peidiwch}).
\example{4}{40}{37}{}{Vernon-Hagrid-A}
{
......@@ -78,7 +79,7 @@ Hagrid stays and talks with Harry, but the moment Hagrid is going to tell Harry
% {‘Ond ma’n rhaid dy fod ti’n gwbod rwbath am dy fam a dy dad,’ meddai. ‘Hynny ydi, ma’n nhw’n \emph{enwog}. Rwyt \emph{ti’n} enwog.’}
%
% \bi