Commit 9caab7b0 authored by Ricardo Quesada's avatar Ricardo Quesada

improved documantion in README

parent 0d327a4c
# Commando for the Commodore 64 - decompiled
# Commando for the Commodore 64
![commando64](https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/d8wonEvj2mcU2kp2gstEmZNFVUgZ8mGVxNiBTiHPXLiEC2tcs-aavTmsyoUnwm8oFBaqr7gQrHSuhvFl21gXBMDV7MUQmV7Fh7lefMMZVdd1FsDqGL5WxZ4pGp3PvKMk-ptyT123Glo=-no)
This is the decompiled source code for the Commodore 64. It includes:
This is the disassembled, fully commented source code of Commando for the C64. It includes:
* Well commented source code. "Easy" to follow (requires some C64 internals
* Fully commented source code. "Easy" to follow (requires some C64 internals
knowledge).
* Source code can be compiled (it actually generates the exactly
same binary as the original one).
......@@ -44,8 +44,7 @@ the middle of the code.
## Original
Although I do own the original copy of Commando, my copy crashes.
My original floppy disk is corrupted :(
Although I do own the original copy of Commando, my original floppy disk is corrupted :(
* ![commando][commando_img]
......@@ -75,20 +74,111 @@ For more info about this level, search for "lvl2" in the [`main.asm`][main.asm]
## Analysis
TODO: Explain the following
### Map and actions
* 16 sprites
* actions
* row-trigger
* animations
* animation-0
* Each level consist of 40x200 map.
* Each level consists of:
* Charset unique for the level: LVL0 at `$C000`, LVL1 at `$C800`, LVL3 at `$D800`
* Each char in the charset contains a mask that indicates the background
priority. See `LVL0_CHARSET_MASK_TBL` in [main.asm].
* Map. LVL0 is at `$6000`, LVL1 at `$8000`, LVL3 at `$A000`
* List of actions: each action represents something that must be created
(like an animation) or done (like opening a door). See `LVL0_ACTION_TBL` in [main.asm].
* List of rows: when the master row index (see`V_SCROLL_ROW_IDX`).
matches this number, the associated action is executed. See
`LVL0_TRIGGER_ROW_TBL` in [main.asm].
* Actions can be receive an option "sprite X position" argument. See
`LVL0_SPRITE_X_LO_TBL` and `LVL0_SPRITE_X_HI_TBL` in [main.asm]
## Tools used
### Sprites
* [Regenerator][regenerator]: To do the first-pass decompilation
The game supports up to 16 sprites.
* Sprite 0 is used for the hero
* Sprites 1-3 are used for hero's bullets
* Sprite 4 is used for hero grenades
* Sprites 5-15 are used for enemies, including its bullets/grenades.
Each sprite has:
* X and Y coordinates (including X LSB and X MSB)
* Sprite frame (which sprite to render). `$FF` is an empty frame.
* Sprite color
* Background priority (e.g: should it be rendered behind a tree?)
* Animation type (see below). If it is `0`, it means it is an empty sprite.
* Extra variables that are used for different things. Varies from anim type to
anim type.
Some enemies, like the motorcycle, take two sprites.
### Animation type
An animation is what the sprite should do while in the game. For example, the
animation type `TYPE_ANIM_SOLDIER_BULLET`, animates the bullet. See
`TYPE_ANIM_TBL_LO` in [main.asm] for the complete list of animation types.
An sprite can change its animation in runtime. For example, the
`TYPE_ANIM_SOLIDER_BEHIND_SMTH` has certain logic. But when the hero is at the
same Y position as it, then it changes it animation to `TYPE_ANIM_SOLDIER`.
Similar, the `TYPE_ANIM_SOLDIER_JUMPING` animates the soldier the "jumping"
solider. But when the solider lands, it changes it animation to
`TYPE_ANIM_SOLDIER`. And the bullets and grenades also have two different
animations. E.g: `TYPE_ANIM_HERO_GRENADE` and `TYPE_ANIM_HERO_GRENADE_END`.
### Animation type 0
When a sprite goes out of bounds, or an enemy dies, or an animation ends, that
sprite is set with animation type `0`, which is the `TYPE_ANIM_SPAWN_SOLIDER`.
What this animation does, is to create random enemies. And when an enemy is
created, it changes in animation type to something different than 0.
That means, that when there map is "full" of enemies (all animation types are
different than `0`), the `TYPE_ANIM_SPAWN_SOLDIER` is not called. And when there
many empty sprites, it gets called more often.
### Collision detection
Collision detection is done by software.
There is a routine to check whether the hero is hit (see `CHECK_COLLISION`) and
another for enemies (see `TYPE_ANIM_HERO_BULLET`, `TYPE_ANIM_HERO_GRENADE_END`).
Each animation type has contains a mask (see `f2544`) that indicates whether it
can collide with bullet, grenades, both or nothing.
### Comments
From a high-level (architecture) point of view, the code is very well designed.
It is pretty easy to add new types of actions, or create new levels, or modify
existing ones with little change in the code/data.
In fact, it should be easy to port the main logic to other 6502 architecture
fairly easy.
From lower-level point of view, it seems that parts of the code could be
improved (see `FIXME` in [main.asm]), specially regarding performance and
flickers. Most probably due to time-pressure I guess.
Additionally, it seems that the assembler used didn't optimize the code to use
zero page. For example, calls to:
```asm
STY $FB,Y
```
are assembled to:
```asm
STY $00FB,Y ;3 byte variation, instead of the two-one.
```
## Tools used for disassembling
* [Regenerator][regenerator]: To do the first-pass diassembly
* [Infiltrator Disassembler][infiltrator]: To analyze data
* [VICE][vice]: For testing + analyze data
* [VChar64][vchar64]: To regenerate the charsets + maps
[regenerator]: https://csdb.dk/release/?id=149429
[infiltrator]: https://csdb.dk/release/?id=100129
\ No newline at end of file
[infiltrator]: https://csdb.dk/release/?id=100129
......@@ -5726,13 +5726,16 @@ CLEANUP_HERO_SPRITE ;$371D
TYPE_ANIM_HERO_GRENADE_END ;$373C
INC SPRITES_TMP_A01,X
LDY #$00 ;#%00000000
b3741 LDA SPRITES_TYPE05,Y
STY a00FB,b
TAY
LDA f2544,Y
LDY a00FB,b
AND #$02 ;#%00000010
AND #$02 ;grenade mask
BEQ b3793
; Collision between hero grenade and enemy?
LDA SPRITES_X_HI01,X
CMP SPRITES_X_HI05,Y
BNE b3793
......@@ -5970,8 +5973,10 @@ _L01 LDA SPRITES_TYPE05,Y
TAY
LDA f2544,Y
LDY a00FB,b
AND #$01
AND #$01 ;bullet mask
BEQ _L02
; Is there collision between enemy and bullet?
LDA SPRITES_X_HI01,X
CMP SPRITES_X_HI05,Y
BNE _L02
......@@ -5997,6 +6002,7 @@ _L01 LDA SPRITES_TYPE05,Y
BCS _L02
JSR DIE_ANIM_AND_SCORE
JSR CLEANUP_HERO_SPRITE
_L02 INY
CPY #$0B ;#%00001011
BNE _L01
......
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