1. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  2. 06 Jul, 2017 2 commits
  3. 02 Jun, 2017 1 commit
    • Florian Fainelli's avatar
      initramfs: fix disabling of initramfs (and its compression) · 57ddfdaa
      Florian Fainelli authored
      Commit db2aa7fd ("initramfs: allow again choice of the embedded
      initram compression algorithm") introduced the possibility to select the
      initramfs compression algorithm from Kconfig and while this is a nice
      feature it broke the use case described below.
      
      Here is what my build system does:
      
       - kernel is initially configured not to have an initramfs included
      
       - build the user space root file system
      
       - re-configure the kernel to have an initramfs included
         (CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE="/path/to/romfs") and set relevant
         CONFIG_INITRAMFS options, in my case, no compression option
         (CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION_NONE)
      
       - kernel is re-built with these options -> kernel+initramfs image is
         copied
      
       - kernel is re-built again without these options -> kernel image is
         copied
      
      Building a kernel without an initramfs means setting this option:
      
        CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE="" (and this one only)
      
      whereas building a kernel with an initramfs means setting these options:
      
        CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE="/home/fainelli/work/uclinux-rootfs/romfs /home/fainelli/work/uclinux-rootfs/misc/initramfs.dev"
        CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_UID=1000
        CONFIG_INITRAMFS_ROOT_GID=1000
        CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION_NONE=y
        CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION=""
      
      Commit db2aa7fd ("initramfs: allow again choice of the embedded
      initram compression algorithm") is problematic because
      CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION which is used to determine the
      initramfs_data.cpio extension/compression is a string, and due to how
      Kconfig works it will evaluate in order, how to assign it.
      
      Setting CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION_NONE with CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE=""
      cannot possibly work (because of the depends on INITRAMFS_SOURCE!=""
      imposed on CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION ) yet we still get
      CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION assigned to ".gz" because CONFIG_RD_GZIP=y
      is set in my kernel, even when there is no initramfs being built.
      
      So we basically end-up generating two initramfs_data.cpio* files, one
      without extension, and one with .gz.  This causes usr/Makefile to track
      usr/initramfs_data.cpio.gz, and not usr/initramfs_data.cpio anymore,
      that is also largely problematic after 9e3596b0 ("kbuild:
      initramfs cleanup, set target from Kconfig") because we used to track
      all possible initramfs_data files in the $(targets) variable before that
      commit.
      
      The end result is that the kernel with an initramfs clearly does not
      contain what we expect it to, it has a stale initramfs_data.cpio file
      built into it, and we keep re-generating an initramfs_data.cpio.gz file
      which is not the one that we want to include in the kernel image proper.
      
      The fix consists in hiding CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION when
      CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE="".  This puts us back in a state to the
      pre-4.10 behavior where we can properly disable and re-enable initramfs
      within the same kernel .config file, and be in control of what
      CONFIG_INITRAMFS_COMPRESSION is set to.
      
      Fixes: db2aa7fd ("initramfs: allow again choice of the embedded initram compression algorithm")
      Fixes: 9e3596b0 ("kbuild: initramfs cleanup, set target from Kconfig")
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170521033337.6197-1-f.fainelli@gmail.comSigned-off-by: default avatarFlorian Fainelli <f.fainelli@gmail.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarNicholas Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>
      Cc: P J P <ppandit@redhat.com>
      Cc: Paul Bolle <pebolle@tiscali.nl>
      Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
      Cc: Daniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      57ddfdaa
  4. 09 May, 2017 1 commit
  5. 15 Dec, 2016 2 commits
  6. 13 Dec, 2014 1 commit
    • Andi Kleen's avatar
      usr/Kconfig: make initrd compression algorithm selection not expert · ec72c666
      Andi Kleen authored
      The kernel has support for (nearly) every compression algorithm known to
      man, each to handle some particular microscopic niche.
      
      Unfortunately all of these always get compiled in if you want to support
      INITRDs, and can be only disabled when CONFIG_EXPERT is set.
      
      I don't see why I need to set EXPERT just to properly configure the initrd
      compression algorithms, and not always include every possible algorithm
      
      Usually the initrd is just compressed with gzip anyways, at least that's
      true on all distributions I use.
      
      Remove the dependencies for initrd compression on CONFIG_EXPERT.
      
      Make the various options just default y, which should be good enough to
      not break any previous configuration.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      ec72c666
  7. 06 Jun, 2014 1 commit
  8. 09 Jul, 2013 1 commit
  9. 01 Jun, 2012 1 commit
  10. 21 Jan, 2011 1 commit
    • David Rientjes's avatar
      kconfig: rename CONFIG_EMBEDDED to CONFIG_EXPERT · 6a108a14
      David Rientjes authored
      The meaning of CONFIG_EMBEDDED has long since been obsoleted; the option
      is used to configure any non-standard kernel with a much larger scope than
      only small devices.
      
      This patch renames the option to CONFIG_EXPERT in init/Kconfig and fixes
      references to the option throughout the kernel.  A new CONFIG_EMBEDDED
      option is added that automatically selects CONFIG_EXPERT when enabled and
      can be used in the future to isolate options that should only be
      considered for embedded systems (RISC architectures, SLOB, etc).
      
      Calling the option "EXPERT" more accurately represents its intention: only
      expert users who understand the impact of the configuration changes they
      are making should enable it.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Acked-by: default avatarDavid Woodhouse <david.woodhouse@intel.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@suse.de>
      Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net>
      Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
      Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
      Cc: Robin Holt <holt@sgi.com>
      Cc: <linux-arch@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      6a108a14
  11. 13 Jan, 2011 1 commit
    • Lasse Collin's avatar
      decompressors: add boot-time XZ support · 3ebe1243
      Lasse Collin authored
      This implements the API defined in <linux/decompress/generic.h> which is
      used for kernel, initramfs, and initrd decompression.  This patch together
      with the first patch is enough for XZ-compressed initramfs and initrd;
      XZ-compressed kernel will need arch-specific changes.
      
      The buffering requirements described in decompress_unxz.c are stricter
      than with gzip, so the relevant changes should be done to the
      arch-specific code when adding support for XZ-compressed kernel.
      Similarly, the heap size in arch-specific pre-boot code may need to be
      increased (30 KiB is enough).
      
      The XZ decompressor needs memmove(), memeq() (memcmp() == 0), and
      memzero() (memset(ptr, 0, size)), which aren't available in all
      arch-specific pre-boot environments.  I'm including simple versions in
      decompress_unxz.c, but a cleaner solution would naturally be nicer.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLasse Collin <lasse.collin@tukaani.org>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Alain Knaff <alain@knaff.lu>
      Cc: Albin Tonnerre <albin.tonnerre@free-electrons.com>
      Cc: Phillip Lougher <phillip@lougher.demon.co.uk>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      3ebe1243
  12. 23 Aug, 2010 1 commit
  13. 11 Jan, 2010 1 commit
  14. 01 Apr, 2009 1 commit
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  17. 19 Feb, 2009 1 commit
  18. 07 Jan, 2009 1 commit
  19. 02 May, 2007 1 commit
  20. 10 Aug, 2005 1 commit