1. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  2. 28 Sep, 2014 2 commits
    • Willy Tarreau's avatar
      lzo: check for length overrun in variable length encoding. · 72cf9012
      Willy Tarreau authored
      This fix ensures that we never meet an integer overflow while adding
      255 while parsing a variable length encoding. It works differently from
      commit 206a81c1 ("lzo: properly check for overruns") because instead of
      ensuring that we don't overrun the input, which is tricky to guarantee
      due to many assumptions in the code, it simply checks that the cumulated
      number of 255 read cannot overflow by bounding this number.
      
      The MAX_255_COUNT is the maximum number of times we can add 255 to a base
      count without overflowing an integer. The multiply will overflow when
      multiplying 255 by more than MAXINT/255. The sum will overflow earlier
      depending on the base count. Since the base count is taken from a u8
      and a few bits, it is safe to assume that it will always be lower than
      or equal to 2*255, thus we can always prevent any overflow by accepting
      two less 255 steps.
      
      This patch also reduces the CPU overhead and actually increases performance
      by 1.1% compared to the initial code, while the previous fix costs 3.1%
      (measured on x86_64).
      
      The fix needs to be backported to all currently supported stable kernels.
      Reported-by: default avatarWillem Pinckaers <willem@lekkertech.net>
      Cc: "Don A. Bailey" <donb@securitymouse.com>
      Cc: stable <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: Willy Tarreau's avatarWilly Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      72cf9012
    • Willy Tarreau's avatar
      Revert "lzo: properly check for overruns" · af958a38
      Willy Tarreau authored
      This reverts commit 206a81c1 ("lzo: properly check for overruns").
      
      As analysed by Willem Pinckaers, this fix is still incomplete on
      certain rare corner cases, and it is easier to restart from the
      original code.
      Reported-by: default avatarWillem Pinckaers <willem@lekkertech.net>
      Cc: "Don A. Bailey" <donb@securitymouse.com>
      Cc: stable <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: Willy Tarreau's avatarWilly Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      af958a38
  3. 23 Jun, 2014 1 commit
  4. 20 Feb, 2013 2 commits
  5. 11 Jan, 2010 1 commit
    • Albin Tonnerre's avatar
      lib: add support for LZO-compressed kernels · 7dd65feb
      Albin Tonnerre authored
      This patch series adds generic support for creating and extracting
      LZO-compressed kernel images, as well as support for using such images on
      the x86 and ARM architectures, and support for creating and using
      LZO-compressed initrd and initramfs images.
      
      Russell King said:
      
      : Testing on a Cortex A9 model:
      : - lzo decompressor is 65% of the time gzip takes to decompress a kernel
      : - lzo kernel is 9% larger than a gzip kernel
      :
      : which I'm happy to say confirms your figures when comparing the two.
      :
      : However, when comparing your new gzip code to the old gzip code:
      : - new is 99% of the size of the old code
      : - new takes 42% of the time to decompress than the old code
      :
      : What this means is that for a proper comparison, the results get even better:
      : - lzo is 7.5% larger than the old gzip'd kernel image
      : - lzo takes 28% of the time that the old gzip code took
      :
      : So the expense seems definitely worth the effort.  The only reason I
      : can think of ever using gzip would be if you needed the additional
      : compression (eg, because you have limited flash to store the image.)
      :
      : I would argue that the default for ARM should therefore be LZO.
      
      This patch:
      
      The lzo compressor is worse than gzip at compression, but faster at
      extraction.  Here are some figures for an ARM board I'm working on:
      
      Uncompressed size: 3.24Mo
      gzip  1.61Mo 0.72s
      lzo   1.75Mo 0.48s
      
      So for a compression ratio that is still relatively close to gzip, it's
      much faster to extract, at least in that case.
      
      This part contains:
       - Makefile routine to support lzo compression
       - Fixes to the existing lzo compressor so that it can be used in
         compressed kernels
       - wrapper around the existing lzo1x_decompress, as it only extracts one
         block at a time, while we need to extract a whole file here
       - config dialog for kernel compression
      
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanup]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAlbin Tonnerre <albin.tonnerre@free-electrons.com>
      Tested-by: TinyLab's avatarWu Zhangjin <wuzhangjin@gmail.com>
      Acked-by: default avatar"H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Tested-by: default avatarRussell King <rmk@arm.linux.org.uk>
      Acked-by: default avatarRussell King <rmk@arm.linux.org.uk>
      Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      7dd65feb
  6. 25 Jul, 2008 1 commit
  7. 10 Apr, 2008 1 commit
  8. 31 Jul, 2007 1 commit
  9. 11 Jul, 2007 1 commit