1. 11 Apr, 2018 1 commit
  2. 16 Nov, 2017 1 commit
  3. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      How this work was done:
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
  4. 09 May, 2017 1 commit
    • Vlastimil Babka's avatar
      mm, page_alloc: count movable pages when stealing from pageblock · 02aa0cdd
      Vlastimil Babka authored
      When stealing pages from pageblock of a different migratetype, we count
      how many free pages were stolen, and change the pageblock's migratetype
      if more than half of the pageblock was free.  This might be too
      conservative, as there might be other pages that are not free, but were
      allocated with the same migratetype as our allocation requested.
      While we cannot determine the migratetype of allocated pages precisely
      (at least without the page_owner functionality enabled), we can count
      pages that compaction would try to isolate for migration - those are
      either on LRU or __PageMovable().  The rest can be assumed to be
      MIGRATE_RECLAIMABLE or MIGRATE_UNMOVABLE, which we cannot easily
      distinguish.  This counting can be done as part of free page stealing
      with little additional overhead.
      The page stealing code is changed so that it considers free pages plus
      pages of the "good" migratetype for the decision whether to change
      pageblock's migratetype.
      The result should be more accurate migratetype of pageblocks wrt the
      actual pages in the pageblocks, when stealing from semi-occupied
      pageblocks.  This should help the efficiency of page grouping by
      In testing based on 4.9 kernel with stress-highalloc from mmtests
      configured for order-4 GFP_KERNEL allocations, this patch has reduced
      the number of unmovable allocations falling back to movable pageblocks
      by 47%.  The number of movable allocations falling back to other
      pageblocks are increased by 55%, but these events don't cause permanent
      fragmentation, so the tradeoff should be positive.  Later patches also
      offset the movable fallback increase to some extent.
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: merge fix]
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170307131545.28577-5-vbabka@suse.czSigned-off-by: default avatarVlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
      Acked-by: Mel Gorman's avatarMel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  5. 08 Sep, 2015 1 commit
  6. 14 Nov, 2014 1 commit
    • Joonsoo Kim's avatar
      mm/page_alloc: fix incorrect isolation behavior by rechecking migratetype · ad53f92e
      Joonsoo Kim authored
      Before describing bugs itself, I first explain definition of freepage.
       1. pages on buddy list are counted as freepage.
       2. pages on isolate migratetype buddy list are *not* counted as freepage.
       3. pages on cma buddy list are counted as CMA freepage, too.
      Now, I describe problems and related patch.
      Patch 1: There is race conditions on getting pageblock migratetype that
      it results in misplacement of freepages on buddy list, incorrect
      freepage count and un-availability of freepage.
      Patch 2: Freepages on pcp list could have stale cached information to
      determine migratetype of buddy list to go.  This causes misplacement of
      freepages on buddy list and incorrect freepage count.
      Patch 4: Merging between freepages on different migratetype of
      pageblocks will cause freepages accouting problem.  This patch fixes it.
      Without patchset [3], above problem doesn't happens on my CMA allocation
      test, because CMA reserved pages aren't used at all.  So there is no
      chance for above race.
      With patchset [3], I did simple CMA allocation test and get below
       - Virtual machine, 4 cpus, 1024 MB memory, 256 MB CMA reservation
       - run kernel build (make -j16) on background
       - 30 times CMA allocation(8MB * 30 = 240MB) attempts in 5 sec interval
       - Result: more than 5000 freepage count are missed
      With patchset [3] and this patchset, I found that no freepage count are
      missed so that I conclude that problems are solved.
      On my simple memory offlining test, these problems also occur on that
      environment, too.
      This patch (of 4):
      There are two paths to reach core free function of buddy allocator,
      __free_one_page(), one is free_one_page()->__free_one_page() and the
      other is free_hot_cold_page()->free_pcppages_bulk()->__free_one_page().
      Each paths has race condition causing serious problems.  At first, this
      patch is focused on first type of freepath.  And then, following patch
      will solve the problem in second type of freepath.
      In the first type of freepath, we got migratetype of freeing page
      without holding the zone lock, so it could be racy.  There are two cases
      of this race.
       1. pages are added to isolate buddy list after restoring orignal
          CPU1                                   CPU2
          get migratetype => return MIGRATE_ISOLATE
          call free_one_page() with MIGRATE_ISOLATE
                                      grab the zone lock
                                      unisolate pageblock
                                      release the zone lock
          grab the zone lock
          call __free_one_page() with MIGRATE_ISOLATE
          freepage go into isolate buddy list,
          although pageblock is already unisolated
      This may cause two problems.  One is that we can't use this page anymore
      until next isolation attempt of this pageblock, because freepage is on
      isolate buddy list.  The other is that freepage accouting could be wrong
      due to merging between different buddy list.  Freepages on isolate buddy
      list aren't counted as freepage, but ones on normal buddy list are
      counted as freepage.  If merge happens, buddy freepage on normal buddy
      list is inevitably moved to isolate buddy list without any consideration
      of freepage accouting so it could be incorrect.
       2. pages are added to normal buddy list while pageblock is isolated.
          It is similar with above case.
      This also may cause two problems.  One is that we can't keep these
      freepages from being allocated.  Although this pageblock is isolated,
      freepage would be added to normal buddy list so that it could be
      allocated without any restriction.  And the other problem is same as
      case 1, that it, incorrect freepage accouting.
      This race condition would be prevented by checking migratetype again
      with holding the zone lock.  Because it is somewhat heavy operation and
      it isn't needed in common case, we want to avoid rechecking as much as
      possible.  So this patch introduce new variable, nr_isolate_pageblock in
      struct zone to check if there is isolated pageblock.  With this, we can
      avoid to re-check migratetype in common case and do it only if there is
      isolated pageblock or migratetype is MIGRATE_ISOLATE.  This solve above
      mentioned problems.
      Changes from v3:
      Add one more check in free_one_page() that checks whether migratetype is
      MIGRATE_ISOLATE or not. Without this, abovementioned case 1 could happens.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJoonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMinchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarVlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
      Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill@shutemov.name>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Yasuaki Ishimatsu <isimatu.yasuaki@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Zhang Yanfei <zhangyanfei@cn.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Tang Chen <tangchen@cn.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com>
      Cc: Bartlomiej Zolnierkiewicz <b.zolnierkie@samsung.com>
      Cc: Wen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Marek Szyprowski <m.szyprowski@samsung.com>
      Cc: Laura Abbott <lauraa@codeaurora.org>
      Cc: Heesub Shin <heesub.shin@samsung.com>
      Cc: "Aneesh Kumar K.V" <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Ritesh Harjani <ritesh.list@gmail.com>
      Cc: Gioh Kim <gioh.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  7. 24 Feb, 2013 1 commit
  8. 12 Dec, 2012 1 commit
    • Wen Congyang's avatar
      memory-hotplug: skip HWPoisoned page when offlining pages · b023f468
      Wen Congyang authored
      hwpoisoned may be set when we offline a page by the sysfs interface
      /sys/devices/system/memory/soft_offline_page or
      /sys/devices/system/memory/hard_offline_page. If we don't clear
      this flag when onlining pages, this page can't be freed, and will
      not in free list. So we can't offline these pages again. So we
      should skip such page when offlining pages.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarWen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Jiang Liu <liuj97@gmail.com>
      Cc: Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>
      Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
      Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com>
      Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Yasuaki Ishimatsu <isimatu.yasuaki@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  9. 09 Oct, 2012 2 commits
  10. 01 Aug, 2012 1 commit
  11. 21 May, 2012 1 commit
  12. 16 Oct, 2007 1 commit
    • KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki's avatar
      memory unplug: page isolation · a5d76b54
      KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki authored
      Implement generic chunk-of-pages isolation method by using page grouping ops.
      This patch add MIGRATE_ISOLATE to MIGRATE_TYPES. By this
       - MIGRATE_TYPES increases.
       - bitmap for migratetype is enlarged.
      pages of MIGRATE_ISOLATE migratetype will not be allocated even if it is free.
      By this, you can isolated *freed* pages from users. How-to-free pages is not
      a purpose of this patch. You may use reclaim and migrate codes to free pages.
      If start_isolate_page_range(start,end) is called,
       - migratetype of the range turns to be MIGRATE_ISOLATE  if
         its type is MIGRATE_MOVABLE. (*) this check can be updated if other
         memory reclaiming works make progress.
       - MIGRATE_ISOLATE is not on migratetype fallback list.
       - All free pages and will-be-freed pages are isolated.
      To check all pages in the range are isolated or not,  use test_pages_isolated(),
      To cancel isolation, use undo_isolate_page_range().
      Changes V6 -> V7
       - removed unnecessary #ifdef
      There are HOLES_IN_ZONE handling codes...I'm glad if we can remove them..
      Signed-off-by: default avatarYasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>