Commit c512ac01 authored by Victor Chibotaru's avatar Victor Chibotaru Committed by Linus Torvalds

kcov: update documentation

The updated documentation describes new KCOV mode for collecting
comparison operands.

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171011095459.70721-3-glider@google.comSigned-off-by: default avatarVictor Chibotaru <tchibo@google.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAlexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Cc: Alexander Popov <alex.popov@linux.com>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>
Cc: Quentin Casasnovas <quentin.casasnovas@oracle.com>
Cc: <syzkaller@googlegroups.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
parent d677a4d6
......@@ -12,19 +12,30 @@ To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard interrupts
and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic parts of kernel is
disabled (e.g. scheduler, locking).
Usage
-----
kcov is also able to collect comparison operands from the instrumented code
(this feature currently requires that the kernel is compiled with clang).
Prerequisites
-------------
Configure the kernel with::
CONFIG_KCOV=y
CONFIG_KCOV requires gcc built on revision 231296 or later.
If the comparison operands need to be collected, set::
CONFIG_KCOV_ENABLE_COMPARISONS=y
Profiling data will only become accessible once debugfs has been mounted::
mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
The following program demonstrates kcov usage from within a test program:
Coverage collection
-------------------
The following program demonstrates coverage collection from within a test
program using kcov:
.. code-block:: c
......@@ -44,6 +55,9 @@ The following program demonstrates kcov usage from within a test program:
#define KCOV_DISABLE _IO('c', 101)
#define COVER_SIZE (64<<10)
#define KCOV_TRACE_PC 0
#define KCOV_TRACE_CMP 1
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int fd;
......@@ -64,7 +78,7 @@ The following program demonstrates kcov usage from within a test program:
if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
perror("mmap"), exit(1);
/* Enable coverage collection on the current thread. */
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, 0))
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, KCOV_TRACE_PC))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
/* Reset coverage from the tail of the ioctl() call. */
__atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
......@@ -111,3 +125,80 @@ The interface is fine-grained to allow efficient forking of test processes.
That is, a parent process opens /sys/kernel/debug/kcov, enables trace mode,
mmaps coverage buffer and then forks child processes in a loop. Child processes
only need to enable coverage (disable happens automatically on thread end).
Comparison operands collection
------------------------------
Comparison operands collection is similar to coverage collection:
.. code-block:: c
/* Same includes and defines as above. */
/* Number of 64-bit words per record. */
#define KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP 4
/*
* The format for the types of collected comparisons.
*
* Bit 0 shows whether one of the arguments is a compile-time constant.
* Bits 1 & 2 contain log2 of the argument size, up to 8 bytes.
*/
#define KCOV_CMP_CONST (1 << 0)
#define KCOV_CMP_SIZE(n) ((n) << 1)
#define KCOV_CMP_MASK KCOV_CMP_SIZE(3)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int fd;
uint64_t *cover, type, arg1, arg2, is_const, size;
unsigned long n, i;
fd = open("/sys/kernel/debug/kcov", O_RDWR);
if (fd == -1)
perror("open"), exit(1);
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_INIT_TRACE, COVER_SIZE))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
/*
* Note that the buffer pointer is of type uint64_t*, because all
* the comparison operands are promoted to uint64_t.
*/
cover = (uint64_t *)mmap(NULL, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long),
PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
perror("mmap"), exit(1);
/* Note KCOV_TRACE_CMP instead of KCOV_TRACE_PC. */
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, KCOV_TRACE_CMP))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
__atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
read(-1, NULL, 0);
/* Read number of comparisons collected. */
n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
type = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 1];
/* arg1 and arg2 - operands of the comparison. */
arg1 = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 2];
arg2 = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 3];
/* ip - caller address. */
ip = cover[i * KCOV_WORDS_PER_CMP + 4];
/* size of the operands. */
size = 1 << ((type & KCOV_CMP_MASK) >> 1);
/* is_const - true if either operand is a compile-time constant.*/
is_const = type & KCOV_CMP_CONST;
printf("ip: 0x%lx type: 0x%lx, arg1: 0x%lx, arg2: 0x%lx, "
"size: %lu, %s\n",
ip, type, arg1, arg2, size,
is_const ? "const" : "non-const");
}
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_DISABLE, 0))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
/* Free resources. */
if (munmap(cover, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long)))
perror("munmap"), exit(1);
if (close(fd))
perror("close"), exit(1);
return 0;
}
Note that the kcov modes (coverage collection or comparison operands) are
mutually exclusive.
Markdown is supported
0% or
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment