
Rasmus Villemoes authored
The C operator <= defines a perfectly fine total ordering on the set of values representable in a long. However, unlike its namesake in the integers, it is not translation invariant, meaning that we do not have "b <= c" iff "a+b <= a+c" for all a,b,c. This means that it is always wrong to try to boil down the relationship between two longs to a question about the sign of their difference, because the resulting relation [a LEQ b iff ab <= 0] is neither antisymmetric or transitive. The former is due to LONG_MIN==LONG_MIN (take any two a,b with ab = LONG_MIN; then a LEQ b and b LEQ a, but a != b). The latter can either be seen observing that x LEQ x+1 for all x, implying x LEQ x+1 LEQ x+2 ... LEQ x1 LEQ x; or more directly with the simple example a=LONG_MIN, b=0, c=1, for which ab < 0, bc < 0, but ac > 0. Note that it makes absolutely no difference that a transmogrying bijection has been applied before the comparison is done. In fact, had the obfuscation not been done, one could probably not observe the bug (assuming all values being compared always lie in one half of the address space, the mathematical value of ab is always representable in a long). As it stands, one can easily obtain three file descriptors exhibiting the nontransitivity of kcmp(). Side note 1: I can't see that ensuring the MSB of the multiplier is set serves any purpose other than obfuscating the obfuscating code. Side note 2: #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <assert.h> #include <sys/syscall.h> enum kcmp_type { KCMP_FILE, KCMP_VM, KCMP_FILES, KCMP_FS, KCMP_SIGHAND, KCMP_IO, KCMP_SYSVSEM, KCMP_TYPES, }; pid_t pid; int kcmp(pid_t pid1, pid_t pid2, int type, unsigned long idx1, unsigned long idx2) { return syscall(SYS_kcmp, pid1, pid2, type, idx1, idx2); } int cmp_fd(int fd1, int fd2) { int c = kcmp(pid, pid, KCMP_FILE, fd1, fd2); if (c < 0) { perror("kcmp"); exit(1); } assert(0 <= c && c < 3); return c; } int cmp_fdp(const void *a, const void *b) { static const int normalize[] = {0, 1, 1}; return normalize[cmp_fd(*(int*)a, *(int*)b)]; } #define MAX 100 /* This is plenty; I've seen it trigger for MAX==3 */ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int r, s, count = 0; int REL[3] = {0,0,0}; int fd[MAX]; pid = getpid(); while (count < MAX) { r = open("/dev/null", O_RDONLY); if (r < 0) break; fd[count++] = r; } printf("opened %d file descriptors\n", count); for (r = 0; r < count; ++r) { for (s = r+1; s < count; ++s) { REL[cmp_fd(fd[r], fd[s])]++; } } printf("== %d\t< %d\t> %d\n", REL[0], REL[1], REL[2]); qsort(fd, count, sizeof(fd[0]), cmp_fdp); memset(REL, 0, sizeof(REL)); for (r = 0; r < count; ++r) { for (s = r+1; s < count; ++s) { REL[cmp_fd(fd[r], fd[s])]++; } } printf("== %d\t< %d\t> %d\n", REL[0], REL[1], REL[2]); return (REL[0] + REL[2] != 0); } Signedoffby: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> Reviewedby: Cyrill Gorcunov <gorcunov@openvz.org> "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signedoffby: Andrew Morton <akpm@linuxfoundation.org> Signedoffby: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linuxfoundation.org>
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