kvm_stat 56.6 KB
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#!/usr/bin/python
#
# top-like utility for displaying kvm statistics
#
# Copyright 2006-2008 Qumranet Technologies
# Copyright 2008-2011 Red Hat, Inc.
#
# Authors:
#  Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
#
# This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2.  See
# the COPYING file in the top-level directory.
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"""The kvm_stat module outputs statistics about running KVM VMs

Three different ways of output formatting are available:
- as a top-like text ui
- in a key -> value format
- in an all keys, all values format

The data is sampled from the KVM's debugfs entries and its perf events.
"""
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from __future__ import print_function
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import curses
import sys
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import locale
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import os
import time
import optparse
import ctypes
import fcntl
import resource
import struct
import re
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import subprocess
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from collections import defaultdict, namedtuple
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VMX_EXIT_REASONS = {
    'EXCEPTION_NMI':        0,
    'EXTERNAL_INTERRUPT':   1,
    'TRIPLE_FAULT':         2,
    'PENDING_INTERRUPT':    7,
    'NMI_WINDOW':           8,
    'TASK_SWITCH':          9,
    'CPUID':                10,
    'HLT':                  12,
    'INVLPG':               14,
    'RDPMC':                15,
    'RDTSC':                16,
    'VMCALL':               18,
    'VMCLEAR':              19,
    'VMLAUNCH':             20,
    'VMPTRLD':              21,
    'VMPTRST':              22,
    'VMREAD':               23,
    'VMRESUME':             24,
    'VMWRITE':              25,
    'VMOFF':                26,
    'VMON':                 27,
    'CR_ACCESS':            28,
    'DR_ACCESS':            29,
    'IO_INSTRUCTION':       30,
    'MSR_READ':             31,
    'MSR_WRITE':            32,
    'INVALID_STATE':        33,
    'MWAIT_INSTRUCTION':    36,
    'MONITOR_INSTRUCTION':  39,
    'PAUSE_INSTRUCTION':    40,
    'MCE_DURING_VMENTRY':   41,
    'TPR_BELOW_THRESHOLD':  43,
    'APIC_ACCESS':          44,
    'EPT_VIOLATION':        48,
    'EPT_MISCONFIG':        49,
    'WBINVD':               54,
    'XSETBV':               55,
    'APIC_WRITE':           56,
    'INVPCID':              58,
}

SVM_EXIT_REASONS = {
    'READ_CR0':       0x000,
    'READ_CR3':       0x003,
    'READ_CR4':       0x004,
    'READ_CR8':       0x008,
    'WRITE_CR0':      0x010,
    'WRITE_CR3':      0x013,
    'WRITE_CR4':      0x014,
    'WRITE_CR8':      0x018,
    'READ_DR0':       0x020,
    'READ_DR1':       0x021,
    'READ_DR2':       0x022,
    'READ_DR3':       0x023,
    'READ_DR4':       0x024,
    'READ_DR5':       0x025,
    'READ_DR6':       0x026,
    'READ_DR7':       0x027,
    'WRITE_DR0':      0x030,
    'WRITE_DR1':      0x031,
    'WRITE_DR2':      0x032,
    'WRITE_DR3':      0x033,
    'WRITE_DR4':      0x034,
    'WRITE_DR5':      0x035,
    'WRITE_DR6':      0x036,
    'WRITE_DR7':      0x037,
    'EXCP_BASE':      0x040,
    'INTR':           0x060,
    'NMI':            0x061,
    'SMI':            0x062,
    'INIT':           0x063,
    'VINTR':          0x064,
    'CR0_SEL_WRITE':  0x065,
    'IDTR_READ':      0x066,
    'GDTR_READ':      0x067,
    'LDTR_READ':      0x068,
    'TR_READ':        0x069,
    'IDTR_WRITE':     0x06a,
    'GDTR_WRITE':     0x06b,
    'LDTR_WRITE':     0x06c,
    'TR_WRITE':       0x06d,
    'RDTSC':          0x06e,
    'RDPMC':          0x06f,
    'PUSHF':          0x070,
    'POPF':           0x071,
    'CPUID':          0x072,
    'RSM':            0x073,
    'IRET':           0x074,
    'SWINT':          0x075,
    'INVD':           0x076,
    'PAUSE':          0x077,
    'HLT':            0x078,
    'INVLPG':         0x079,
    'INVLPGA':        0x07a,
    'IOIO':           0x07b,
    'MSR':            0x07c,
    'TASK_SWITCH':    0x07d,
    'FERR_FREEZE':    0x07e,
    'SHUTDOWN':       0x07f,
    'VMRUN':          0x080,
    'VMMCALL':        0x081,
    'VMLOAD':         0x082,
    'VMSAVE':         0x083,
    'STGI':           0x084,
    'CLGI':           0x085,
    'SKINIT':         0x086,
    'RDTSCP':         0x087,
    'ICEBP':          0x088,
    'WBINVD':         0x089,
    'MONITOR':        0x08a,
    'MWAIT':          0x08b,
    'MWAIT_COND':     0x08c,
    'XSETBV':         0x08d,
    'NPF':            0x400,
}

# EC definition of HSR (from arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_arm.h)
AARCH64_EXIT_REASONS = {
    'UNKNOWN':      0x00,
    'WFI':          0x01,
    'CP15_32':      0x03,
    'CP15_64':      0x04,
    'CP14_MR':      0x05,
    'CP14_LS':      0x06,
    'FP_ASIMD':     0x07,
    'CP10_ID':      0x08,
    'CP14_64':      0x0C,
    'ILL_ISS':      0x0E,
    'SVC32':        0x11,
    'HVC32':        0x12,
    'SMC32':        0x13,
    'SVC64':        0x15,
    'HVC64':        0x16,
    'SMC64':        0x17,
    'SYS64':        0x18,
    'IABT':         0x20,
    'IABT_HYP':     0x21,
    'PC_ALIGN':     0x22,
    'DABT':         0x24,
    'DABT_HYP':     0x25,
    'SP_ALIGN':     0x26,
    'FP_EXC32':     0x28,
    'FP_EXC64':     0x2C,
    'SERROR':       0x2F,
    'BREAKPT':      0x30,
    'BREAKPT_HYP':  0x31,
    'SOFTSTP':      0x32,
    'SOFTSTP_HYP':  0x33,
    'WATCHPT':      0x34,
    'WATCHPT_HYP':  0x35,
    'BKPT32':       0x38,
    'VECTOR32':     0x3A,
    'BRK64':        0x3C,
}

# From include/uapi/linux/kvm.h, KVM_EXIT_xxx
USERSPACE_EXIT_REASONS = {
    'UNKNOWN':          0,
    'EXCEPTION':        1,
    'IO':               2,
    'HYPERCALL':        3,
    'DEBUG':            4,
    'HLT':              5,
    'MMIO':             6,
    'IRQ_WINDOW_OPEN':  7,
    'SHUTDOWN':         8,
    'FAIL_ENTRY':       9,
    'INTR':             10,
    'SET_TPR':          11,
    'TPR_ACCESS':       12,
    'S390_SIEIC':       13,
    'S390_RESET':       14,
    'DCR':              15,
    'NMI':              16,
    'INTERNAL_ERROR':   17,
    'OSI':              18,
    'PAPR_HCALL':       19,
    'S390_UCONTROL':    20,
    'WATCHDOG':         21,
    'S390_TSCH':        22,
    'EPR':              23,
    'SYSTEM_EVENT':     24,
}

IOCTL_NUMBERS = {
    'SET_FILTER':  0x40082406,
    'ENABLE':      0x00002400,
    'DISABLE':     0x00002401,
    'RESET':       0x00002403,
}

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ENCODING = locale.getpreferredencoding(False)
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TRACE_FILTER = re.compile(r'^[^\(]*$')
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class Arch(object):
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    """Encapsulates global architecture specific data.

    Contains the performance event open syscall and ioctl numbers, as
    well as the VM exit reasons for the architecture it runs on.
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    """
    @staticmethod
    def get_arch():
        machine = os.uname()[4]

        if machine.startswith('ppc'):
            return ArchPPC()
        elif machine.startswith('aarch64'):
            return ArchA64()
        elif machine.startswith('s390'):
            return ArchS390()
        else:
            # X86_64
            for line in open('/proc/cpuinfo'):
                if not line.startswith('flags'):
                    continue

                flags = line.split()
                if 'vmx' in flags:
                    return ArchX86(VMX_EXIT_REASONS)
                if 'svm' in flags:
                    return ArchX86(SVM_EXIT_REASONS)
                return

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    def tracepoint_is_child(self, field):
        if (TRACE_FILTER.match(field)):
            return None
        return field.split('(', 1)[0]

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class ArchX86(Arch):
    def __init__(self, exit_reasons):
        self.sc_perf_evt_open = 298
        self.ioctl_numbers = IOCTL_NUMBERS
        self.exit_reasons = exit_reasons

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    def debugfs_is_child(self, field):
        """ Returns name of parent if 'field' is a child, None otherwise """
        return None

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class ArchPPC(Arch):
    def __init__(self):
        self.sc_perf_evt_open = 319
        self.ioctl_numbers = IOCTL_NUMBERS
        self.ioctl_numbers['ENABLE'] = 0x20002400
        self.ioctl_numbers['DISABLE'] = 0x20002401
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        self.ioctl_numbers['RESET'] = 0x20002403
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        # PPC comes in 32 and 64 bit and some generated ioctl
        # numbers depend on the wordsize.
        char_ptr_size = ctypes.sizeof(ctypes.c_char_p)
        self.ioctl_numbers['SET_FILTER'] = 0x80002406 | char_ptr_size << 16
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        self.exit_reasons = {}
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    def debugfs_is_child(self, field):
        """ Returns name of parent if 'field' is a child, None otherwise """
        return None

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class ArchA64(Arch):
    def __init__(self):
        self.sc_perf_evt_open = 241
        self.ioctl_numbers = IOCTL_NUMBERS
        self.exit_reasons = AARCH64_EXIT_REASONS

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    def debugfs_is_child(self, field):
        """ Returns name of parent if 'field' is a child, None otherwise """
        return None

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class ArchS390(Arch):
    def __init__(self):
        self.sc_perf_evt_open = 331
        self.ioctl_numbers = IOCTL_NUMBERS
        self.exit_reasons = None

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    def debugfs_is_child(self, field):
        """ Returns name of parent if 'field' is a child, None otherwise """
        if field.startswith('instruction_'):
            return 'exit_instruction'


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ARCH = Arch.get_arch()


class perf_event_attr(ctypes.Structure):
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    """Struct that holds the necessary data to set up a trace event.

    For an extensive explanation see perf_event_open(2) and
    include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h, struct perf_event_attr

    All fields that are not initialized in the constructor are 0.

    """
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    _fields_ = [('type', ctypes.c_uint32),
                ('size', ctypes.c_uint32),
                ('config', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ('sample_freq', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ('sample_type', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ('read_format', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ('flags', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ('wakeup_events', ctypes.c_uint32),
                ('bp_type', ctypes.c_uint32),
                ('bp_addr', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ('bp_len', ctypes.c_uint64),
                ]

    def __init__(self):
        super(self.__class__, self).__init__()
        self.type = PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT
        self.size = ctypes.sizeof(self)
        self.read_format = PERF_FORMAT_GROUP

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PERF_TYPE_TRACEPOINT = 2
PERF_FORMAT_GROUP = 1 << 3

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class Group(object):
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    """Represents a perf event group."""

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    def __init__(self):
        self.events = []

    def add_event(self, event):
        self.events.append(event)

    def read(self):
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        """Returns a dict with 'event name: value' for all events in the
        group.

        Values are read by reading from the file descriptor of the
        event that is the group leader. See perf_event_open(2) for
        details.

        Read format for the used event configuration is:
        struct read_format {
            u64 nr; /* The number of events */
            struct {
                u64 value; /* The value of the event */
            } values[nr];
        };

        """
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        length = 8 * (1 + len(self.events))
        read_format = 'xxxxxxxx' + 'Q' * len(self.events)
        return dict(zip([event.name for event in self.events],
                        struct.unpack(read_format,
                                      os.read(self.events[0].fd, length))))

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class Event(object):
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    """Represents a performance event and manages its life cycle."""
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    def __init__(self, name, group, trace_cpu, trace_pid, trace_point,
                 trace_filter, trace_set='kvm'):
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        self.libc = ctypes.CDLL('libc.so.6', use_errno=True)
        self.syscall = self.libc.syscall
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        self.name = name
        self.fd = None
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        self._setup_event(group, trace_cpu, trace_pid, trace_point,
                          trace_filter, trace_set)
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    def __del__(self):
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        """Closes the event's file descriptor.

        As no python file object was created for the file descriptor,
        python will not reference count the descriptor and will not
        close it itself automatically, so we do it.

        """
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        if self.fd:
            os.close(self.fd)
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    def _perf_event_open(self, attr, pid, cpu, group_fd, flags):
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        """Wrapper for the sys_perf_evt_open() syscall.

        Used to set up performance events, returns a file descriptor or -1
        on error.

        Attributes are:
        - syscall number
        - struct perf_event_attr *
        - pid or -1 to monitor all pids
        - cpu number or -1 to monitor all cpus
        - The file descriptor of the group leader or -1 to create a group.
        - flags

        """
        return self.syscall(ARCH.sc_perf_evt_open, ctypes.pointer(attr),
                            ctypes.c_int(pid), ctypes.c_int(cpu),
                            ctypes.c_int(group_fd), ctypes.c_long(flags))

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    def _setup_event_attribute(self, trace_set, trace_point):
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        """Returns an initialized ctype perf_event_attr struct."""

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        id_path = os.path.join(PATH_DEBUGFS_TRACING, 'events', trace_set,
                               trace_point, 'id')

        event_attr = perf_event_attr()
        event_attr.config = int(open(id_path).read())
        return event_attr

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    def _setup_event(self, group, trace_cpu, trace_pid, trace_point,
                     trace_filter, trace_set):
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        """Sets up the perf event in Linux.

        Issues the syscall to register the event in the kernel and
        then sets the optional filter.

        """

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        event_attr = self._setup_event_attribute(trace_set, trace_point)
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        # First event will be group leader.
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        group_leader = -1
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        # All others have to pass the leader's descriptor instead.
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        if group.events:
            group_leader = group.events[0].fd

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        fd = self._perf_event_open(event_attr, trace_pid,
                                   trace_cpu, group_leader, 0)
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        if fd == -1:
            err = ctypes.get_errno()
            raise OSError(err, os.strerror(err),
                          'while calling sys_perf_event_open().')

        if trace_filter:
            fcntl.ioctl(fd, ARCH.ioctl_numbers['SET_FILTER'],
                        trace_filter)

        self.fd = fd

    def enable(self):
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        """Enables the trace event in the kernel.

        Enabling the group leader makes reading counters from it and the
        events under it possible.

        """
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        fcntl.ioctl(self.fd, ARCH.ioctl_numbers['ENABLE'], 0)

    def disable(self):
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        """Disables the trace event in the kernel.

        Disabling the group leader makes reading all counters under it
        impossible.

        """
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        fcntl.ioctl(self.fd, ARCH.ioctl_numbers['DISABLE'], 0)

    def reset(self):
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        """Resets the count of the trace event in the kernel."""
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        fcntl.ioctl(self.fd, ARCH.ioctl_numbers['RESET'], 0)

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class Provider(object):
    """Encapsulates functionalities used by all providers."""
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    def __init__(self, pid):
        self.child_events = False
        self.pid = pid

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    @staticmethod
    def is_field_wanted(fields_filter, field):
        """Indicate whether field is valid according to fields_filter."""
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        if not fields_filter:
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            return True
        return re.match(fields_filter, field) is not None

    @staticmethod
    def walkdir(path):
        """Returns os.walk() data for specified directory.

        As it is only a wrapper it returns the same 3-tuple of (dirpath,
        dirnames, filenames).
        """
        return next(os.walk(path))


class TracepointProvider(Provider):
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    """Data provider for the stats class.

    Manages the events/groups from which it acquires its data.

    """
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    def __init__(self, pid, fields_filter):
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        self.group_leaders = []
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        self.filters = self._get_filters()
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        self.update_fields(fields_filter)
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        super(TracepointProvider, self).__init__(pid)
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    @staticmethod
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    def _get_filters():
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        """Returns a dict of trace events, their filter ids and
        the values that can be filtered.

        Trace events can be filtered for special values by setting a
        filter string via an ioctl. The string normally has the format
        identifier==value. For each filter a new event will be created, to
        be able to distinguish the events.

        """
        filters = {}
        filters['kvm_userspace_exit'] = ('reason', USERSPACE_EXIT_REASONS)
        if ARCH.exit_reasons:
            filters['kvm_exit'] = ('exit_reason', ARCH.exit_reasons)
        return filters

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    def _get_available_fields(self):
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        """Returns a list of available events of format 'event name(filter
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        name)'.

        All available events have directories under
        /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/ which export information
        about the specific event. Therefore, listing the dirs gives us
        a list of all available events.

        Some events like the vm exit reasons can be filtered for
        specific values. To take account for that, the routine below
        creates special fields with the following format:
        event name(filter name)

        """
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        path = os.path.join(PATH_DEBUGFS_TRACING, 'events', 'kvm')
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        fields = self.walkdir(path)[1]
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        extra = []
        for field in fields:
            if field in self.filters:
                filter_name_, filter_dicts = self.filters[field]
                for name in filter_dicts:
                    extra.append(field + '(' + name + ')')
        fields += extra
        return fields

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    def update_fields(self, fields_filter):
        """Refresh fields, applying fields_filter"""
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        self.fields = [field for field in self._get_available_fields()
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                       if self.is_field_wanted(fields_filter, field) or
                       ARCH.tracepoint_is_child(field)]
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    @staticmethod
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    def _get_online_cpus():
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        """Returns a list of cpu id integers."""
        def parse_int_list(list_string):
            """Returns an int list from a string of comma separated integers and
            integer ranges."""
            integers = []
            members = list_string.split(',')

            for member in members:
                if '-' not in member:
                    integers.append(int(member))
                else:
                    int_range = member.split('-')
                    integers.extend(range(int(int_range[0]),
                                          int(int_range[1]) + 1))

            return integers

        with open('/sys/devices/system/cpu/online') as cpu_list:
            cpu_string = cpu_list.readline()
            return parse_int_list(cpu_string)
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    def _setup_traces(self):
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        """Creates all event and group objects needed to be able to retrieve
        data."""
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        fields = self._get_available_fields()
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        if self._pid > 0:
            # Fetch list of all threads of the monitored pid, as qemu
            # starts a thread for each vcpu.
            path = os.path.join('/proc', str(self._pid), 'task')
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            groupids = self.walkdir(path)[1]
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        else:
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            groupids = self._get_online_cpus()
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        # The constant is needed as a buffer for python libs, std
        # streams and other files that the script opens.
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        newlim = len(groupids) * len(fields) + 50
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        try:
            softlim_, hardlim = resource.getrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_NOFILE)

            if hardlim < newlim:
                # Now we need CAP_SYS_RESOURCE, to increase the hard limit.
                resource.setrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_NOFILE, (newlim, newlim))
            else:
                # Raising the soft limit is sufficient.
                resource.setrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_NOFILE, (newlim, hardlim))

        except ValueError:
            sys.exit("NOFILE rlimit could not be raised to {0}".format(newlim))

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        for groupid in groupids:
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            group = Group()
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            for name in fields:
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                tracepoint = name
                tracefilter = None
                match = re.match(r'(.*)\((.*)\)', name)
                if match:
                    tracepoint, sub = match.groups()
                    tracefilter = ('%s==%d\0' %
                                   (self.filters[tracepoint][0],
                                    self.filters[tracepoint][1][sub]))

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                # From perf_event_open(2):
                # pid > 0 and cpu == -1
                # This measures the specified process/thread on any CPU.
                #
                # pid == -1 and cpu >= 0
                # This measures all processes/threads on the specified CPU.
                trace_cpu = groupid if self._pid == 0 else -1
                trace_pid = int(groupid) if self._pid != 0 else -1

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                group.add_event(Event(name=name,
                                      group=group,
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                                      trace_cpu=trace_cpu,
                                      trace_pid=trace_pid,
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                                      trace_point=tracepoint,
                                      trace_filter=tracefilter))
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            self.group_leaders.append(group)

    @property
    def fields(self):
        return self._fields

    @fields.setter
    def fields(self, fields):
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        """Enables/disables the (un)wanted events"""
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        self._fields = fields
        for group in self.group_leaders:
            for index, event in enumerate(group.events):
                if event.name in fields:
                    event.reset()
                    event.enable()
                else:
                    # Do not disable the group leader.
                    # It would disable all of its events.
                    if index != 0:
                        event.disable()

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    @property
    def pid(self):
        return self._pid

    @pid.setter
    def pid(self, pid):
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        """Changes the monitored pid by setting new traces."""
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        self._pid = pid
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        # The garbage collector will get rid of all Event/Group
        # objects and open files after removing the references.
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        self.group_leaders = []
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        self._setup_traces()
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        self.fields = self._fields

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    def read(self, by_guest=0):
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        """Returns 'event name: current value' for all enabled events."""
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        ret = defaultdict(int)
        for group in self.group_leaders:
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            for name, val in group.read().items():
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                if name not in self._fields:
                    continue
                parent = ARCH.tracepoint_is_child(name)
                if parent:
                    name += ' ' + parent
                ret[name] += val
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        return ret

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    def reset(self):
        """Reset all field counters"""
        for group in self.group_leaders:
            for event in group.events:
                event.reset()

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class DebugfsProvider(Provider):
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    """Provides data from the files that KVM creates in the kvm debugfs
    folder."""
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    def __init__(self, pid, fields_filter, include_past):
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        self.update_fields(fields_filter)
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        self._baseline = {}
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        self.do_read = True
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        self.paths = []
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        super(DebugfsProvider, self).__init__(pid)
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        if include_past:
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            self._restore()
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    def _get_available_fields(self):
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        """"Returns a list of available fields.

        The fields are all available KVM debugfs files

        """
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        return self.walkdir(PATH_DEBUGFS_KVM)[2]
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    def update_fields(self, fields_filter):
        """Refresh fields, applying fields_filter"""
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        self._fields = [field for field in self._get_available_fields()
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                        if self.is_field_wanted(fields_filter, field) or
                        ARCH.debugfs_is_child(field)]
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    @property
    def fields(self):
        return self._fields

    @fields.setter
    def fields(self, fields):
        self._fields = fields
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        self.reset()
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    @property
    def pid(self):
        return self._pid

    @pid.setter
    def pid(self, pid):
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        self._pid = pid
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        if pid != 0:
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            vms = self.walkdir(PATH_DEBUGFS_KVM)[1]
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            if len(vms) == 0:
                self.do_read = False

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            self.paths = list(filter(lambda x: "{}-".format(pid) in x, vms))
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        else:
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            self.paths = []
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            self.do_read = True

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    def _verify_paths(self):
        """Remove invalid paths"""
        for path in self.paths:
            if not os.path.exists(os.path.join(PATH_DEBUGFS_KVM, path)):
                self.paths.remove(path)
                continue

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    def read(self, reset=0, by_guest=0):
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        """Returns a dict with format:'file name / field -> current value'.

        Parameter 'reset':
          0   plain read
          1   reset field counts to 0
          2   restore the original field counts

        """
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        results = {}

        # If no debugfs filtering support is available, then don't read.
        if not self.do_read:
            return results
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        self._verify_paths()
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        paths = self.paths
        if self._pid == 0:
            paths = []
            for entry in os.walk(PATH_DEBUGFS_KVM):
                for dir in entry[1]:
                    paths.append(dir)
        for path in paths:
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            for field in self._fields:
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                value = self._read_field(field, path)
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                key = path + field
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                if reset == 1:
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                    self._baseline[key] = value
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                if reset == 2:
                    self._baseline[key] = 0
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                if self._baseline.get(key, -1) == -1:
                    self._baseline[key] = value
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                parent = ARCH.debugfs_is_child(field)
                if parent:
                    field = field + ' ' + parent
                else:
                    if by_guest:
                        field = key.split('-')[0]    # set 'field' to 'pid'
                increment = value - self._baseline.get(key, 0)
                if field in results:
                    results[field] += increment
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                else:
                    results[field] = increment
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        return results

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    def _read_field(self, field, path):
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        """Returns the value of a single field from a specific VM."""
        try:
            return int(open(os.path.join(PATH_DEBUGFS_KVM,
                                         path,
                                         field))
                       .read())
        except IOError:
            return 0
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    def reset(self):
        """Reset field counters"""
        self._baseline = {}
        self.read(1)

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    def _restore(self):
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        """Reset field counters"""
        self._baseline = {}
        self.read(2)

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EventStat = namedtuple('EventStat', ['value', 'delta'])


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class Stats(object):
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    """Manages the data providers and the data they provide.

    It is used to set filters on the provider's data and collect all
    provider data.

    """
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    def __init__(self, options):
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        self.providers = self._get_providers(options)
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        self._pid_filter = options.pid
        self._fields_filter = options.fields
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        self.values = {}
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        self._child_events = False
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    def _get_providers(self, options):
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        """Returns a list of data providers depending on the passed options."""
        providers = []

        if options.debugfs:
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            providers.append(DebugfsProvider(options.pid, options.fields,
                                             options.dbgfs_include_past))
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        if options.tracepoints or not providers:
            providers.append(TracepointProvider(options.pid, options.fields))

        return providers

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    def _update_provider_filters(self):
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        """Propagates fields filters to providers."""
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        # As we reset the counters when updating the fields we can
        # also clear the cache of old values.
        self.values = {}
        for provider in self.providers:
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            provider.update_fields(self._fields_filter)
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    def reset(self):
        self.values = {}
        for provider in self.providers:
            provider.reset()

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    @property
    def fields_filter(self):
        return self._fields_filter

    @fields_filter.setter
    def fields_filter(self, fields_filter):
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        if fields_filter != self._fields_filter:
            self._fields_filter = fields_filter
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            self._update_provider_filters()
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    @property
    def pid_filter(self):
        return self._pid_filter

    @pid_filter.setter
    def pid_filter(self, pid):
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        if pid != self._pid_filter:
            self._pid_filter = pid
            self.values = {}
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            for provider in self.providers:
                provider.pid = self._pid_filter
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    @property
    def child_events(self):
        return self._child_events

    @child_events.setter
    def child_events(self, val):
        self._child_events = val
        for provider in self.providers:
            provider.child_events = val

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    def get(self, by_guest=0):
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        """Returns a dict with field -> (value, delta to last value) of all
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        provider data.
        Key formats:
          * plain: 'key' is event name
          * child-parent: 'key' is in format '<child> <parent>'
          * pid: 'key' is the pid of the guest, and the record contains the
               aggregated event data
        These formats are generated by the providers, and handled in class TUI.
        """
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        for provider in self.providers:
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            new = provider.read(by_guest=by_guest)
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            for key in new:
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                oldval = self.values.get(key, EventStat(0, 0)).value
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                newval = new.get(key, 0)
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                newdelta = newval - oldval
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                self.values[key] = EventStat(newval, newdelta)
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        return self.values

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    def toggle_display_guests(self, to_pid):
        """Toggle between collection of stats by individual event and by
        guest pid

        Events reported by DebugfsProvider change when switching to/from
        reading by guest values. Hence we have to remove the excess event
        names from self.values.

        """
        if any(isinstance(ins, TracepointProvider) for ins in self.providers):
            return 1
        if to_pid:
            for provider in self.providers:
                if isinstance(provider, DebugfsProvider):
                    for key in provider.fields:
                        if key in self.values.keys():
                            del self.values[key]
        else:
            oldvals = self.values.copy()
            for key in oldvals:
                if key.isdigit():
                    del self.values[key]
        # Update oldval (see get())
        self.get(to_pid)
        return 0

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DELAY_DEFAULT = 3.0
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MAX_GUEST_NAME_LEN = 48
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MAX_REGEX_LEN = 44
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SORT_DEFAULT = 0
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class Tui(object):
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    """Instruments curses to draw a nice text ui."""
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    def __init__(self, stats):
        self.stats = stats
        self.screen = None
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        self._delay_initial = 0.25
        self._delay_regular = DELAY_DEFAULT
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        self._sorting = SORT_DEFAULT
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        self._display_guests = 0
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    def __enter__(self):
        """Initialises curses for later use.  Based on curses.wrapper
           implementation from the Python standard library."""
        self.screen = curses.initscr()
        curses.noecho()
        curses.cbreak()

        # The try/catch works around a minor bit of
        # over-conscientiousness in the curses module, the error
        # return from C start_color() is ignorable.
        try:
            curses.start_color()
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        except curses.error:
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            pass

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        # Hide cursor in extra statement as some monochrome terminals
        # might support hiding but not colors.
        try:
            curses.curs_set(0)
        except curses.error:
            pass

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        curses.use_default_colors()
        return self

    def __exit__(self, *exception):
Stefan Raspl's avatar
Stefan Raspl committed
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        """Resets the terminal to its normal state.  Based on curses.wrapper
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           implementation from the Python standard library."""
        if self.screen:
            self.screen.keypad(0)
            curses.echo()
            curses.nocbreak()
            curses.endwin()

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    @staticmethod
    def get_all_gnames():
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        """Returns a list of (pid, gname) tuples of all running guests"""
        res = []
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        try:
            child = subprocess.Popen(['ps', '-A', '--format', 'pid,args'],
                                     stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
        except:
            raise Exception
        for line in child.stdout:
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            line = line.decode(ENCODING).lstrip().split(' ', 1)
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            # perform a sanity check before calling the more expensive
            # function to possibly extract the guest name
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            if ' -name ' in line[1]:
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                res.append((line[0], Tui.get_gname_from_pid(line[0])))
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        child.stdout.close()

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        return res

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    def _print_all_gnames(self, row):
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        """Print a list of all running guests along with their pids."""
        self.screen.addstr(row, 2, '%8s  %-60s' %
                           ('Pid', 'Guest Name (fuzzy list, might be '
                            'inaccurate!)'),
                           curses.A_UNDERLINE)
        row += 1
        try:
            for line in self.get_all_gnames():
                self.screen.addstr(row, 2, '%8s  %-60s' % (line[0], line[1]))
                row += 1
                if row >= self.screen.getmaxyx()[0]:
                    break
        except Exception:
            self.screen.addstr(row + 1, 2, 'Not available')

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    @staticmethod
    def get_pid_from_gname(gname):
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        """Fuzzy function to convert guest name to QEMU process pid.

        Returns a list of potential pids, can be empty if no match found.
        Throws an exception on processing errors.

        """
        pids = []
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        for line in Tui.get_all_gnames():
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            if gname == line[1]:
                pids.append(int(line[0]))

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        return pids

    @staticmethod
    def get_gname_from_pid(pid):
        """Returns the guest name for a QEMU process pid.

        Extracts the guest name from the QEMU comma line by processing the
        '-name' option. Will also handle names specified out of sequence.

        """
        name = ''
        try:
            line = open('/proc/{}/cmdline'
1073
                        .format(pid), 'r').read().split('\0')
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            parms = line[line.index('-name') + 1].split(',')
            while '' in parms:
                # commas are escaped (i.e. ',,'), hence e.g. 'foo,bar' results
                # in # ['foo', '', 'bar'], which we revert here
                idx = parms.index('')
                parms[idx - 1] += ',' + parms[idx + 1]
                del parms[idx:idx+2]
            # the '-name' switch allows for two ways to specify the guest name,
            # where the plain name overrides the name specified via 'guest='
            for arg in parms:
                if '=' not in arg:
                    name = arg
                    break
                if arg[:6] == 'guest=':
                    name = arg[6:]
        except (ValueError, IOError, IndexError):
            pass

        return name

1094
    def _update_pid(self, pid):
1095
        """Propagates pid selection to stats object."""
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        self.screen.addstr(4, 1, 'Updating pid filter...')
        self.screen.refresh()
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        self.stats.pid_filter = pid

1100
    def _refresh_header(self, pid=None):
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        """Refreshes the header."""
        if pid is None:
            pid = self.stats.pid_filter
1104
        self.screen.erase()
1105
        gname = self.get_gname_from_pid(pid)
1106
        self._gname = gname
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        if gname:
            gname = ('({})'.format(gname[:MAX_GUEST_NAME_LEN] + '...'
                                   if len(gname) > MAX_GUEST_NAME_LEN
                                   else gname))
1111
        if pid > 0:
1112
            self._headline = 'kvm statistics - pid {0} {1}'.format(pid, gname)
1113
        else:
1114 1115
            self._headline = 'kvm statistics - summary'
        self.screen.addstr(0, 0, self._headline, curses.A_BOLD)
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        if self.stats.fields_filter:
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            regex = self.stats.fields_filter
            if len(regex) > MAX_REGEX_LEN:
                regex = regex[:MAX_REGEX_LEN] + '...'
            self.screen.addstr(1, 17, 'regex filter: {0}'.format(regex))
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        if self._display_guests:
            col_name = 'Guest Name'
        else:
            col_name = 'Event'
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        self.screen.addstr(2, 1, '%-40s %10s%7s %8s' %
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                           (col_name, 'Total', '%Total', 'CurAvg/s'),
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                           curses.A_STANDOUT)
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        self.screen.addstr(4, 1, 'Collecting data...')
        self.screen.refresh()

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    def _refresh_body(self, sleeptime):
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        def insert_child(sorted_items, child, values, parent):
            num = len(sorted_items)
            for i in range(0, num):
                # only add child if parent is present
                if parent.startswith(sorted_items[i][0]):
                    sorted_items.insert(i + 1, ('  ' + child, values))

        def get_sorted_events(self, stats):
            """ separate parent and child events """
            if self._sorting == SORT_DEFAULT:
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                def sortkey(pair):
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                    # sort by (delta value, overall value)
1144
                    v = pair[1]
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                    return (v.delta, v.value)
            else:
1147
                def sortkey(pair):
1148
                    # sort by overall value
1149
                    v = pair[1]
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                    return v.value

            childs = []
            sorted_items = []
            # we can't rule out child events to appear prior to parents even
            # when sorted - separate out all children first, and add in later
            for key, values in sorted(stats.items(), key=sortkey,
                                      reverse=True):
                if values == (0, 0):
                    continue
                if key.find(' ') != -1:
                    if not self.stats.child_events:
                        continue
                    childs.insert(0, (key, values))
                else:
                    sorted_items.append((key, values))
            if self.stats.child_events:
                for key, values in childs:
                    (child, parent) = key.split(' ')
                    insert_child(sorted_items, child, values, parent)

            return sorted_items

1173
        if not self._is_running_guest(self.stats.pid_filter):
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            if self._gname:
                try: # ...to identify the guest by name in case it's back
                    pids = self.get_pid_from_gname(self._gname)
                    if len(pids) == 1:
                        self._refresh_header(pids[0])
                        self._update_pid(pids[0])
                        return
                except:
                    pass
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            self._display_guest_dead()
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            # leave final data on screen
            return
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        row = 3
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        self.screen.move(row, 0)
        self.screen.clrtobot()
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        stats = self.stats.get(self._display_guests)
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        total = 0.
1191
        ctotal = 0.
1192
        for key, values in stats.items():
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            if self._display_guests:
                if self.get_gname_from_pid(key):
                    total += values.value
                continue
            if not key.find(' ') != -1:
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                total += values.value
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            else:
                ctotal += values.value
        if total == 0.:
            # we don't have any fields, or all non-child events are filtered
            total = ctotal
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1205
        # print events
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        tavg = 0
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        tcur = 0
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        guest_removed = False
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        for key, values in get_sorted_events(self, stats):
            if row >= self.screen.getmaxyx()[0] - 1 or values == (0, 0):
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                break
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            if self._display_guests:
                key = self.get_gname_from_pid(key)
                if not key:
                    continue
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            cur = int(round(values.delta / sleeptime)) if values.delta else 0
            if cur < 0:
                guest_removed = True
                continue
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            if key[0] != ' ':
                if values.delta:
                    tcur += values.delta
                ptotal = values.value
                ltotal = total
            else:
                ltotal = ptotal
            self.screen.addstr(row, 1, '%-40s %10d%7.1f %8s' % (key,
                               values.value,
                               values.value * 100 / float(ltotal), cur))
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            row += 1
1231
        if row == 3:
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            if guest_removed:
                self.screen.addstr(4, 1, 'Guest removed, updating...')
            else:
                self.screen.addstr(4, 1, 'No matching events reported yet')
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        if row > 4:
1237
            tavg = int(round(tcur / sleeptime)) if tcur > 0 else ''
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            self.screen.addstr(row, 1, '%-40s %10d        %8s' %
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                               ('Total', total, tavg), curses.A_BOLD)
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        self.screen.refresh()

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    def _display_guest_dead(self):
        marker = '   Guest is DEAD   '
        y = min(len(self._headline), 80 - len(marker))
        self.screen.addstr(0, y, marker, curses.A_BLINK | curses.A_STANDOUT)

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    def _show_msg(self, text):
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        """Display message centered text and exit on key press"""
        hint = 'Press any key to continue'
        curses.cbreak()
        self.screen.erase()
        (x, term_width) = self.screen.getmaxyx()
        row = 2
        for line in text:
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            start = (term_width - len(line)) // 2
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            self.screen.addstr(row, start, line)
            row += 1
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        self.screen.addstr(row + 1, (term_width - len(hint)) // 2, hint,
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                           curses.A_STANDOUT)
        self.screen.getkey()

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    def _show_help_interactive(self):
1263
        """Display help with list of interactive commands"""
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        msg = ('   b     toggle events by guests (debugfs only, honors'
               ' filters)',
               '   c     clear filter',
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               '   f     filter by regular expression',
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               '   g     filter by guest name/PID',
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               '   h     display interactive commands reference',
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               '   o     toggle sorting order (Total vs CurAvg/s)',
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               '   p     filter by guest name/PID',
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               '   q     quit',
               '   r     reset stats',
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               '   s     set update interval',
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               '   x     toggle reporting of stats for individual child trace'
               ' events',
               'Any other key refreshes statistics immediately')
        curses.cbreak()
        self.screen.erase()
        self.screen.addstr(0, 0, "Interactive commands reference",
                           curses.A_BOLD)
        self.screen.addstr(2, 0, "Press any key to exit", curses.A_STANDOUT)
        row = 4
        for line in msg:
            self.screen.addstr(row, 0, line)
            row += 1
        self.screen.getkey()
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        self._refresh_header()
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    def _show_filter_selection(self):
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        """Draws filter selection mask.

        Asks for a valid regex and sets the fields filter accordingly.

        """
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        msg = ''
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        while True:
            self.screen.erase()
            self.screen.addstr(0, 0,
                               "Show statistics for events matching a regex.",
                               curses.A_BOLD)
            self.screen.addstr(2, 0,
                               "Current regex: {0}"
                               .format(self.stats.fields_filter))
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            self.screen.addstr(5, 0, msg)
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            self.screen.addstr(3, 0, "New regex: ")
            curses.echo()
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            regex = self.screen.getstr().decode(ENCODING)
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            curses.noecho()
            if len(regex) == 0:
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                self.stats.fields_filter = ''
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                self._refresh_header()
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                return
            try:
                re.compile(regex)
                self.stats.fields_filter = regex
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                self._refresh_header()
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                return
            except re.error:
1320
                msg = '"' + regex + '": Not a valid regular expression'
1321 1322
                continue

1323
    def _show_set_update_interval(self):
1324 1325 1326 1327
        """Draws update interval selection mask."""
        msg = ''
        while True:
            self.screen.erase()
1328
            self.screen.addstr(0, 0, 'Set update interval (defaults to %.1fs).' %
1329 1330 1331 1332 1333
                               DELAY_DEFAULT, curses.A_BOLD)
            self.screen.addstr(4, 0, msg)
            self.screen.addstr(2, 0, 'Change delay from %.1fs to ' %
                               self._delay_regular)
            curses.echo()
1334
            val = self.screen.getstr().decode(ENCODING)
1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352
            curses.noecho()

            try:
                if len(val) > 0:
                    delay = float(val)
                    if delay < 0.1:
                        msg = '"' + str(val) + '": Value must be >=0.1'
                        continue
                    if delay > 25.5:
                        msg = '"' + str(val) + '": Value must be <=25.5'
                        continue
                else:
                    delay = DELAY_DEFAULT
                self._delay_regular = delay
                break

            except ValueError:
                msg = '"' + str(val) + '": Invalid value'
1353
        self._refresh_header()
1354

1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360
    def _is_running_guest(self, pid):
        """Check if pid is still a running process."""
        if not pid:
            return True
        return os.path.isdir(os.path.join('/proc/', str(pid)))

1361
    def _show_vm_selection_by_guest(self):
1362 1363
        """Draws guest selection mask.

1364
        Asks for a guest name or pid until a valid guest name or '' is entered.
1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370

        """
        msg = ''
        while True:
            self.screen.erase()
            self.screen.addstr(0, 0,
1371
                               'Show statistics for specific guest or pid.',
1372 1373 1374 1375 1376
                               curses.A_BOLD)
            self.screen.addstr(1, 0,
                               'This might limit the shown data to the trace '
                               'statistics.')
            self.screen.addstr(5, 0, msg)
1377
            self._print_all_gnames(7)
1378
            curses.echo()
1379 1380 1381
            curses.curs_set(1)
            self.screen.addstr(3, 0, "Guest or pid [ENTER exits]: ")
            guest = self.screen.getstr().decode(ENCODING)
1382 1383
            curses.noecho()

1384 1385
            pid = 0
            if not guest or guest == '0':
1386
                break
1387
            if guest.isdigit():
1388
                if not self._is_running_guest(guest):
1389
                    msg = '"' + guest + '": Not a running process'
1390
                    continue
1391
                pid = int(guest)
1392
                break
1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411
            pids = []
            try:
                pids = self.get_pid_from_gname(guest)
            except:
                msg = '"' + guest + '": Internal error while searching, ' \
                      'use pid filter instead'
                continue
            if len(pids) == 0:
                msg = '"' + guest + '": Not an active guest'
                continue
            if len(pids) > 1:
                msg = '"' + guest + '": Multiple matches found, use pid ' \
                      'filter instead'
                continue
            pid = pids[0]
            break
        curses.curs_set(0)
        self._refresh_header(pid)
        self._update_pid(pid)
1412

1413
    def show_stats(self):
1414
        """Refreshes the screen and processes user input."""
1415
        sleeptime = self._delay_initial
1416
        self._refresh_header()
1417
        start = 0.0  # result based on init value never appears on screen
1418
        while True:
1419
            self._refresh_body(time.time() - start)
1420
            curses.halfdelay(int(sleeptime * 10))
1421
            start = time.time()
1422
            sleeptime = self._delay_regular
1423 1424
            try:
                char = self.screen.getkey()
1425 1426 1427
                if char == 'b':
                    self._display_guests = not self._display_guests
                    if self.stats.toggle_display_guests(self._display_guests):
1428 1429 1430 1431
                        self._show_msg(['Command not available with '
                                        'tracepoints enabled', 'Restart with '
                                        'debugfs only (see option \'-d\') and '
                                        'try again!'])
1432
                        self._display_guests = not self._display_guests
1433
                    self._refresh_header()
1434
                if char == 'c':
1435
                    self.stats.fields_filter = ''
1436 1437
                    self._refresh_header(0)
                    self._update_pid(0)
1438
                if char == 'f':
1439
                    curses.curs_set(1)
1440
                    self._show_filter_selection()
1441
                    curses.curs_set(0)
1442
                    sleeptime = self._delay_initial
1443 1444
                if char == 'g' or char == 'p':
                    self._show_vm_selection_by_guest()
1445
                    sleeptime = self._delay_initial
1446
                if char == 'h':
1447
                    self._show_help_interactive()
1448 1449
                if char == 'o':
                    self._sorting = not self._sorting
1450 1451
                if char == 'q':
                    break
1452 1453
                if char == 'r':
                    self.stats.reset()
1454 1455
                if char == 's':
                    curses.curs_set(1)
1456
                    self._show_set_update_interval()
1457 1458
                    curses.curs_set(0)
                    sleeptime = self._delay_initial
1459
                if char == 'x':
1460
                    self.stats.child_events = not self.stats.child_events
1461 1462 1463 1464 1465
            except KeyboardInterrupt:
                break
            except curses.error:
                continue

1466

1467
def batch(stats):
1468
    """Prints statistics in a key, value format."""
1469 1470 1471 1472
    try:
        s = stats.get()
        time.sleep(1)
        s = stats.get()
1473
        for key, values in sorted(s.items()):
1474 1475
            print('%-42s%10d%10d' % (key.split(' ')[0], values.value,
                  values.delta))
1476 1477
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        pass
1478

1479

1480
def log(stats):