Commit 1c0d32fd authored by Eric Dumazet's avatar Eric Dumazet Committed by David S. Miller

net_sched: gen_estimator: complete rewrite of rate estimators

1) Old code was hard to maintain, due to complex lock chains.
   (We probably will be able to remove some kfree_rcu() in callers)

2) Using a single timer to update all estimators does not scale.

3) Code was buggy on 32bit kernel (WRITE_ONCE() on 64bit quantity
   is not supposed to work well)

In this rewrite :

- I removed the RB tree that had to be scanned in
  gen_estimator_active(). qdisc dumps should be much faster.

- Each estimator has its own timer.

- Estimations are maintained in net_rate_estimator structure,
  instead of dirtying the qdisc. Minor, but part of the simplification.

- Reading the estimator uses RCU and a seqcount to provide proper
  support for 32bit kernels.

- We reduce memory need when estimators are not used, since
  we store a pointer, instead of the bytes/packets counters.

- xt_rateest_mt() no longer has to grab a spinlock.
  (In the future, xt_rateest_tg() could be switched to per cpu counters)
Signed-off-by: default avatarEric Dumazet <[email protected]>
Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid S. Miller <[email protected]>
parent a6e16931
......@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ struct tc_action {
struct tcf_t tcfa_tm;
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed tcfa_bstats;
struct gnet_stats_queue tcfa_qstats;
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 tcfa_rate_est;
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu *tcfa_rate_est;
spinlock_t tcfa_lock;
struct rcu_head tcfa_rcu;
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats;
......
......@@ -11,6 +11,8 @@ struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu {
struct u64_stats_sync syncp;
};
struct net_rate_estimator;
struct gnet_dump {
spinlock_t * lock;
struct sk_buff * skb;
......@@ -42,8 +44,7 @@ void __gnet_stats_copy_basic(const seqcount_t *running,
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu,
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *b);
int gnet_stats_copy_rate_est(struct gnet_dump *d,
const struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *b,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *r);
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **ptr);
int gnet_stats_copy_queue(struct gnet_dump *d,
struct gnet_stats_queue __percpu *cpu_q,
struct gnet_stats_queue *q, __u32 qlen);
......@@ -53,16 +54,16 @@ int gnet_stats_finish_copy(struct gnet_dump *d);
int gen_new_estimator(struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est,
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est,
spinlock_t *stats_lock,
seqcount_t *running, struct nlattr *opt);
void gen_kill_estimator(struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est);
void gen_kill_estimator(struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **ptr);
int gen_replace_estimator(struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est,
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **ptr,
spinlock_t *stats_lock,
seqcount_t *running, struct nlattr *opt);
bool gen_estimator_active(const struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
const struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est);
bool gen_estimator_active(struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **ptr);
bool gen_estimator_read(struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **ptr,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *sample);
#endif
#ifndef _XT_RATEEST_H
#define _XT_RATEEST_H
#include <net/gen_stats.h>
struct xt_rateest {
/* keep lock and bstats on same cache line to speedup xt_rateest_tg() */
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed bstats;
spinlock_t lock;
/* keep rstats and lock on same cache line to speedup xt_rateest_mt() */
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 rstats;
/* following fields not accessed in hot path */
unsigned int refcnt;
struct hlist_node list;
char name[IFNAMSIZ];
unsigned int refcnt;
struct gnet_estimator params;
struct rcu_head rcu;
/* keep this field far away to speedup xt_rateest_mt() */
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu *rate_est;
};
struct xt_rateest *xt_rateest_lookup(const char *name);
......
......@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ struct Qdisc {
struct netdev_queue *dev_queue;
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 rate_est;
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu *rate_est;
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats;
struct gnet_stats_queue __percpu *cpu_qstats;
......
......@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
* 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* Authors: Alexey Kuznetsov, <[email protected]>
* Eric Dumazet <[email protected]>
*
* Changes:
* Jamal Hadi Salim - moved it to net/core and reshulfed
......@@ -30,171 +31,79 @@
#include <linux/skbuff.h>
#include <linux/rtnetlink.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/rbtree.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/seqlock.h>
#include <net/sock.h>
#include <net/gen_stats.h>
/*
This code is NOT intended to be used for statistics collection,
its purpose is to provide a base for statistical multiplexing
for controlled load service.
If you need only statistics, run a user level daemon which
periodically reads byte counters.
Unfortunately, rate estimation is not a very easy task.
F.e. I did not find a simple way to estimate the current peak rate
and even failed to formulate the problem 8)8)
So I preferred not to built an estimator into the scheduler,
but run this task separately.
Ideally, it should be kernel thread(s), but for now it runs
from timers, which puts apparent top bounds on the number of rated
flows, has minimal overhead on small, but is enough
to handle controlled load service, sets of aggregates.
We measure rate over A=(1<<interval) seconds and evaluate EWMA:
avrate = avrate*(1-W) + rate*W
where W is chosen as negative power of 2: W = 2^(-ewma_log)
The resulting time constant is:
T = A/(-ln(1-W))
NOTES.
* avbps and avpps are scaled by 2^5.
* both values are reported as 32 bit unsigned values. bps can
overflow for fast links : max speed being 34360Mbit/sec
* Minimal interval is HZ/4=250msec (it is the greatest common divisor
for HZ=100 and HZ=1024 8)), maximal interval
is (HZ*2^EST_MAX_INTERVAL)/4 = 8sec. Shorter intervals
are too expensive, longer ones can be implemented
at user level painlessly.
/* This code is NOT intended to be used for statistics collection,
* its purpose is to provide a base for statistical multiplexing
* for controlled load service.
* If you need only statistics, run a user level daemon which
* periodically reads byte counters.
*/
#define EST_MAX_INTERVAL 5
struct gen_estimator {
struct list_head list;
struct net_rate_estimator {
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats;
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est;
spinlock_t *stats_lock;
seqcount_t *running;
int ewma_log;
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats;
u8 ewma_log;
u8 intvl_log; /* period : (250ms << intvl_log) */
seqcount_t seq;
u32 last_packets;
unsigned long avpps;
u64 last_bytes;
u64 avpps;
u64 avbps;
struct rcu_head e_rcu;
struct rb_node node;
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats;
struct rcu_head head;
};
struct gen_estimator_head {
unsigned long next_jiffies;
struct timer_list timer;
struct list_head list;
unsigned long next_jiffies;
struct timer_list timer;
struct rcu_head rcu;
};
static struct gen_estimator_head elist[EST_MAX_INTERVAL+1];
/* Protects against NULL dereference */
static DEFINE_RWLOCK(est_lock);
/* Protects against soft lockup during large deletion */
static struct rb_root est_root = RB_ROOT;
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(est_tree_lock);
static void est_timer(unsigned long arg)
static void est_fetch_counters(struct net_rate_estimator *e,
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *b)
{
int idx = (int)arg;
struct gen_estimator *e;
if (e->stats_lock)
spin_lock(e->stats_lock);
rcu_read_lock();
list_for_each_entry_rcu(e, &elist[idx].list, list) {
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed b = {0};
unsigned long rate;
u64 brate;
if (e->stats_lock)
spin_lock(e->stats_lock);
read_lock(&est_lock);
if (e->bstats == NULL)
goto skip;
__gnet_stats_copy_basic(e->running, &b, e->cpu_bstats, e->bstats);
brate = (b.bytes - e->last_bytes)<<(7 - idx);
e->last_bytes = b.bytes;
e->avbps += (brate >> e->ewma_log) - (e->avbps >> e->ewma_log);
WRITE_ONCE(e->rate_est->bps, (e->avbps + 0xF) >> 5);
rate = b.packets - e->last_packets;
rate <<= (7 - idx);
e->last_packets = b.packets;
e->avpps += (rate >> e->ewma_log) - (e->avpps >> e->ewma_log);
WRITE_ONCE(e->rate_est->pps, (e->avpps + 0xF) >> 5);
skip:
read_unlock(&est_lock);
if (e->stats_lock)
spin_unlock(e->stats_lock);
}
__gnet_stats_copy_basic(e->running, b, e->cpu_bstats, e->bstats);
if (!list_empty(&elist[idx].list)) {
elist[idx].next_jiffies += ((HZ/4) << idx);
if (e->stats_lock)
spin_unlock(e->stats_lock);
if (unlikely(time_after_eq(jiffies, elist[idx].next_jiffies))) {
/* Ouch... timer was delayed. */
elist[idx].next_jiffies = jiffies + 1;
}
mod_timer(&elist[idx].timer, elist[idx].next_jiffies);
}
rcu_read_unlock();
}
static void gen_add_node(struct gen_estimator *est)
static void est_timer(unsigned long arg)
{
struct rb_node **p = &est_root.rb_node, *parent = NULL;
struct net_rate_estimator *est = (struct net_rate_estimator *)arg;
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed b;
u64 rate, brate;
while (*p) {
struct gen_estimator *e;
est_fetch_counters(est, &b);
brate = (b.bytes - est->last_bytes) << (8 - est->ewma_log);
brate -= (est->avbps >> est->ewma_log);
parent = *p;
e = rb_entry(parent, struct gen_estimator, node);
rate = (u64)(b.packets - est->last_packets) << (8 - est->ewma_log);
rate -= (est->avpps >> est->ewma_log);
if (est->bstats > e->bstats)
p = &parent->rb_right;
else
p = &parent->rb_left;
}
rb_link_node(&est->node, parent, p);
rb_insert_color(&est->node, &est_root);
}
static
struct gen_estimator *gen_find_node(const struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
const struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est)
{
struct rb_node *p = est_root.rb_node;
write_seqcount_begin(&est->seq);
est->avbps += brate;
est->avpps += rate;
write_seqcount_end(&est->seq);
while (p) {
struct gen_estimator *e;
est->last_bytes = b.bytes;
est->last_packets = b.packets;
e = rb_entry(p, struct gen_estimator, node);
est->next_jiffies += ((HZ/4) << est->intvl_log);
if (bstats > e->bstats)
p = p->rb_right;
else if (bstats < e->bstats || rate_est != e->rate_est)
p = p->rb_left;
else
return e;
if (unlikely(time_after_eq(jiffies, est->next_jiffies))) {
/* Ouch... timer was delayed. */
est->next_jiffies = jiffies + 1;
}
return NULL;
mod_timer(&est->timer, est->next_jiffies);
}
/**
......@@ -217,84 +126,76 @@ struct gen_estimator *gen_find_node(const struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats
*/
int gen_new_estimator(struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est,
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est,
spinlock_t *stats_lock,
seqcount_t *running,
struct nlattr *opt)
{
struct gen_estimator *est;
struct gnet_estimator *parm = nla_data(opt);
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed b = {0};
int idx;
struct net_rate_estimator *old, *est;
struct gnet_stats_basic_packed b;
int intvl_log;
if (nla_len(opt) < sizeof(*parm))
return -EINVAL;
/* allowed timer periods are :
* -2 : 250ms, -1 : 500ms, 0 : 1 sec
* 1 : 2 sec, 2 : 4 sec, 3 : 8 sec
*/
if (parm->interval < -2 || parm->interval > 3)
return -EINVAL;
est = kzalloc(sizeof(*est), GFP_KERNEL);
if (est == NULL)
if (!est)
return -ENOBUFS;
__gnet_stats_copy_basic(running, &b, cpu_bstats, bstats);
idx = parm->interval + 2;
seqcount_init(&est->seq);
intvl_log = parm->interval + 2;
est->bstats = bstats;
est->rate_est = rate_est;
est->stats_lock = stats_lock;
est->running = running;
est->ewma_log = parm->ewma_log;
est->last_bytes = b.bytes;
est->avbps = rate_est->bps<<5;
est->last_packets = b.packets;
est->avpps = rate_est->pps<<10;
est->intvl_log = intvl_log;
est->cpu_bstats = cpu_bstats;
spin_lock_bh(&est_tree_lock);
if (!elist[idx].timer.function) {
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&elist[idx].list);
setup_timer(&elist[idx].timer, est_timer, idx);
est_fetch_counters(est, &b);
est->last_bytes = b.bytes;
est->last_packets = b.packets;
old = rcu_dereference_protected(*rate_est, 1);
if (old) {
del_timer_sync(&old->timer);
est->avbps = old->avbps;
est->avpps = old->avpps;
}
if (list_empty(&elist[idx].list)) {
elist[idx].next_jiffies = jiffies + ((HZ/4) << idx);
mod_timer(&elist[idx].timer, elist[idx].next_jiffies);
}
list_add_rcu(&est->list, &elist[idx].list);
gen_add_node(est);
spin_unlock_bh(&est_tree_lock);
est->next_jiffies = jiffies + ((HZ/4) << intvl_log);
setup_timer(&est->timer, est_timer, (unsigned long)est);
mod_timer(&est->timer, est->next_jiffies);
rcu_assign_pointer(*rate_est, est);
if (old)
kfree_rcu(old, rcu);
return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_new_estimator);
/**
* gen_kill_estimator - remove a rate estimator
* @bstats: basic statistics
* @rate_est: rate estimator statistics
* @rate_est: rate estimator
*
* Removes the rate estimator specified by &bstats and &rate_est.
* Removes the rate estimator.
*
* Note : Caller should respect an RCU grace period before freeing stats_lock
*/
void gen_kill_estimator(struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est)
void gen_kill_estimator(struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est)
{
struct gen_estimator *e;
spin_lock_bh(&est_tree_lock);
while ((e = gen_find_node(bstats, rate_est))) {
rb_erase(&e->node, &est_root);
struct net_rate_estimator *est;
write_lock(&est_lock);
e->bstats = NULL;
write_unlock(&est_lock);
list_del_rcu(&e->list);
kfree_rcu(e, e_rcu);
est = xchg((__force struct net_rate_estimator **)rate_est, NULL);
if (est) {
del_timer_sync(&est->timer);
kfree_rcu(est, rcu);
}
spin_unlock_bh(&est_tree_lock);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_kill_estimator);
......@@ -314,33 +215,47 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_kill_estimator);
*/
int gen_replace_estimator(struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
struct gnet_stats_basic_cpu __percpu *cpu_bstats,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est,
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est,
spinlock_t *stats_lock,
seqcount_t *running, struct nlattr *opt)
{
gen_kill_estimator(bstats, rate_est);
return gen_new_estimator(bstats, cpu_bstats, rate_est, stats_lock, running, opt);
return gen_new_estimator(bstats, cpu_bstats, rate_est,
stats_lock, running, opt);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_replace_estimator);
/**
* gen_estimator_active - test if estimator is currently in use
* @bstats: basic statistics
* @rate_est: rate estimator statistics
* @rate_est: rate estimator
*
* Returns true if estimator is active, and false if not.
*/
bool gen_estimator_active(const struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *bstats,
const struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *rate_est)
bool gen_estimator_active(struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est)
{
bool res;
return !!rcu_access_pointer(*rate_est);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_estimator_active);
ASSERT_RTNL();
bool gen_estimator_read(struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *sample)
{
struct net_rate_estimator *est;
unsigned seq;
rcu_read_lock();
est = rcu_dereference(*rate_est);
if (!est) {
rcu_read_unlock();
return false;
}
spin_lock_bh(&est_tree_lock);
res = gen_find_node(bstats, rate_est) != NULL;
spin_unlock_bh(&est_tree_lock);
do {
seq = read_seqcount_begin(&est->seq);
sample->bps = est->avbps >> 8;
sample->pps = est->avpps >> 8;
} while (read_seqcount_retry(&est->seq, seq));
return res;
rcu_read_unlock();
return true;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_estimator_active);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(gen_estimator_read);
......@@ -194,8 +194,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(gnet_stats_copy_basic);
/**
* gnet_stats_copy_rate_est - copy rate estimator statistics into statistics TLV
* @d: dumping handle
* @b: basic statistics
* @r: rate estimator statistics
* @rate_est: rate estimator
*
* Appends the rate estimator statistics to the top level TLV created by
* gnet_stats_start_copy().
......@@ -205,18 +204,17 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(gnet_stats_copy_basic);
*/
int
gnet_stats_copy_rate_est(struct gnet_dump *d,
const struct gnet_stats_basic_packed *b,
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *r)
struct net_rate_estimator __rcu **rate_est)
{
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 sample;
struct gnet_stats_rate_est est;
int res;
if (b && !gen_estimator_active(b, r))
if (!gen_estimator_read(rate_est, &sample))
return 0;
est.bps = min_t(u64, UINT_MAX, r->bps);
est.bps = min_t(u64, UINT_MAX, sample.bps);
/* we have some time before reaching 2^32 packets per second */
est.pps = r->pps;
est.pps = sample.pps;
if (d->compat_tc_stats) {
d->tc_stats.bps = est.bps;
......@@ -226,11 +224,11 @@ gnet_stats_copy_rate_est(struct gnet_dump *d,
if (d->tail) {
res = gnet_stats_copy(d, TCA_STATS_RATE_EST, &est, sizeof(est),
TCA_STATS_PAD);
if (res < 0 || est.bps == r->bps)
if (res < 0 || est.bps == sample.bps)
return res;
/* emit 64bit stats only if needed */
return gnet_stats_copy(d, TCA_STATS_RATE_EST64, r, sizeof(*r),
TCA_STATS_PAD);
return gnet_stats_copy(d, TCA_STATS_RATE_EST64, &sample,
sizeof(sample), TCA_STATS_PAD);
}
return 0;
......
......@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ void xt_rateest_put(struct xt_rateest *est)
mutex_lock(&xt_rateest_mutex);
if (--est->refcnt == 0) {
hlist_del(&est->list);
gen_kill_estimator(&est->bstats, &est->rstats);
gen_kill_estimator(&est->rate_est);
/*
* gen_estimator est_timer() might access est->lock or bstats,
* wait a RCU grace period before freeing 'est'
......@@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ static int xt_rateest_tg_checkentry(const struct xt_tgchk_param *par)
cfg.est.interval = info->interval;
cfg.est.ewma_log = info->ewma_log;
ret = gen_new_estimator(&est->bstats, NULL, &est->rstats,
ret = gen_new_estimator(&est->bstats, NULL, &est->rate_est,
&est->lock, NULL, &cfg.opt);
if (ret < 0)
goto err2;
......
......@@ -18,35 +18,33 @@ static bool
xt_rateest_mt(const struct sk_buff *skb, struct xt_action_param *par)
{
const struct xt_rateest_match_info *info = par->matchinfo;
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 *r;
struct gnet_stats_rate_est64 sample = {0};
u_int32_t bps1, bps2, pps1, pps2;
bool ret = true;
spin_lock_bh(&info->est1->lock);
r = &info->est1->rstats;
gen_estimator_read(&info->est1->rate_est, &sample);
if (info->flags & XT_RATEEST_MATCH_DELTA) {
bps1 = info->bps1 >= r->bps ? info->bps1 - r->bps : 0;
pps1 = info->pps1 >= r->pps ? info->pps1 - r->pps : 0;
bps1 = info->bps1 >= sample.bps ? info->bps1 - sample.bps : 0;
pps1 = info->pps1 >= sample.pps ? info->pps1 - sample.pps : 0;
} else {
bps1 = r->bps;
pps1 = r->pps;
bps1 = sample.bps;
pps1 = sample.pps;
}
spin_unlock_bh(&info->est1->lock);
if (info->flags & XT_RATEEST_MATCH_ABS) {
bps2 = info->bps2;
pps2 = info->pps2;
} else {
spin_lock_bh(&info->est2->lock);
r = &info->est2->rstats;
gen_estimator_read(&info->est2->rate_est, &sample);
if (info->flags & XT_RATEEST_MATCH_DELTA) {
bps2 = info->bps2 >= r->bps ? info->bps2 - r->bps : 0;
pps2 = info->pps2 >= r->pps ? info->pps2 - r->pps : 0;
bps2 = info->bps2 >= sample.bps ? info->bps2 - sample.bps : 0;