Commit 4cf2143e authored by Jeff King's avatar Jeff King Committed by Junio C Hamano

pack-objects: break delta cycles before delta-search phase

We do not allow cycles in the delta graph of a pack (i.e., A
is a delta of B which is a delta of A) for the obvious
reason that you cannot actually access any of the objects in
such a case.

There's a last-ditch attempt to notice cycles during the
write phase, during which we issue a warning to the user and
write one of the objects out in full. However, this is
"last-ditch" for two reasons:

  1. By this time, it's too late to find another delta for
     the object, so the resulting pack is larger than it
     otherwise could be.

  2. The warning is there because this is something that
     _shouldn't_ ever happen. If it does, then either:

       a. a pack we are reusing deltas from had its own

       b. we are reusing deltas from multiple packs, and
          we found a cycle among them (i.e., A is a delta of
          B in one pack, but B is a delta of A in another,
          and we choose to use both deltas).

       c. there is a bug in the delta-search code

     So this code serves as a final check that none of these
     things has happened, warns the user, and prevents us
     from writing a bogus pack.

Right now, (2b) should never happen because of the static
ordering of packs in want_object_in_pack(). If two objects
have a delta relationship, then they must be in the same
pack, and therefore we will find them from that same pack.

However, a future patch would like to change that static
ordering, which will make (2b) a common occurrence. In
preparation, we should be able to handle those kinds of
cycles better. This patch does by introducing a
cycle-breaking step during the get_object_details() phase,
when we are deciding which deltas can be reused. That gives
us the chance to feed the objects into the delta search as
if the cycle did not exist.

We'll leave the detection and warning in the write_object()
phase in place, as it still serves as a check for case (2c).

This does mean we will stop warning for (2a). That case is
caused by bogus input packs, and we ideally would warn the
user about it.  However, since those cycles show up after
picking reusable deltas, they look the same as (2b) to us;
our new code will break the cycles early and the last-ditch
check will never see them.

We could do analysis on any cycles that we find to
distinguish the two cases (i.e., it is a bogus pack if and
only if every delta in the cycle is in the same pack), but
we don't need to. If there is a cycle inside a pack, we'll
run into problems not only reusing the delta, but accessing
the object data at all. So when we try to dig up the actual
size of the object, we'll hit that same cycle and kick in
our usual complain-and-try-another-source code.
Signed-off-by: 's avatarJeff King <>
Signed-off-by: 's avatarJunio C Hamano <>
parent ca79c985
......@@ -1494,6 +1494,83 @@ static int pack_offset_sort(const void *_a, const void *_b)
(a->in_pack_offset > b->in_pack_offset);
* Drop an on-disk delta we were planning to reuse. Naively, this would
* just involve blanking out the "delta" field, but we have to deal
* with some extra book-keeping:
* 1. Removing ourselves from the delta_sibling linked list.
* 2. Updating our size/type to the non-delta representation. These were
* either not recorded initially (size) or overwritten with the delta type
* (type) when check_object() decided to reuse the delta.
static void drop_reused_delta(struct object_entry *entry)
struct object_entry **p = &entry->delta->delta_child;
struct object_info oi = OBJECT_INFO_INIT;
while (*p) {
if (*p == entry)
*p = (*p)->delta_sibling;
p = &(*p)->delta_sibling;
entry->delta = NULL;
oi.sizep = &entry->size;
oi.typep = &entry->type;
if (packed_object_info(entry->in_pack, entry->in_pack_offset, &oi) < 0) {
* We failed to get the info from this pack for some reason;
* fall back to sha1_object_info, which may find another copy.
* And if that fails, the error will be recorded in entry->type
* and dealt with in prepare_pack().
entry->type = sha1_object_info(entry->idx.sha1, &entry->size);
* Follow the chain of deltas from this entry onward, throwing away any links
* that cause us to hit a cycle (as determined by the DFS state flags in
* the entries).
static void break_delta_chains(struct object_entry *entry)
/* If it's not a delta, it can't be part of a cycle. */
if (!entry->delta) {
entry->dfs_state = DFS_DONE;
switch (entry->dfs_state) {
case DFS_NONE:
* This is the first time we've seen the object. We mark it as
* part of the active potential cycle and recurse.
entry->dfs_state = DFS_ACTIVE;
entry->dfs_state = DFS_DONE;
case DFS_DONE:
/* object already examined, and not part of a cycle */
* We found a cycle that needs broken. It would be correct to
* break any link in the chain, but it's convenient to
* break this one.
entry->dfs_state = DFS_DONE;
static void get_object_details(void)
uint32_t i;
......@@ -1511,6 +1588,13 @@ static void get_object_details(void)
entry->no_try_delta = 1;
* This must happen in a second pass, since we rely on the delta
* information for the whole list being completed.
for (i = 0; i < to_pack.nr_objects; i++)
......@@ -27,6 +27,15 @@ struct object_entry {
unsigned no_try_delta:1;
unsigned tagged:1; /* near the very tip of refs */
unsigned filled:1; /* assigned write-order */
* State flags for depth-first search used for analyzing delta cycles.
enum {
} dfs_state;
struct packing_data {
test_description='test handling of inter-pack delta cycles during repack
The goal here is to create a situation where we have two blobs, A and B, with A
as a delta against B in one pack, and vice versa in the other. Then if we can
persuade a full repack to find A from one pack and B from the other, that will
give us a cycle when we attempt to reuse those deltas.
The trick is in the "persuade" step, as it depends on the internals of how
pack-objects picks which pack to reuse the deltas from. But we can assume
that it does so in one of two general strategies:
1. Using a static ordering of packs. In this case, no inter-pack cycles can
happen. Any objects with a delta relationship must be present in the same
pack (i.e., no "--thin" packs on disk), so we will find all related objects
from that pack. So assuming there are no cycles within a single pack (and
we avoid generating them via pack-objects or importing them via
index-pack), then our result will have no cycles.
So this case should pass the tests no matter how we arrange things.
2. Picking the next pack to examine based on locality (i.e., where we found
something else recently).
In this case, we want to make sure that we find the delta versions of A and
B and not their base versions. We can do this by putting two blobs in each
pack. The first is a "dummy" blob that can only be found in the pack in
question. And then the second is the actual delta we want to find.
The two blobs must be present in the same tree, not present in other trees,
and the dummy pathname must sort before the delta path.
The setup below focuses on case 2. We have two commits HEAD and HEAD^, each
which has two files: "dummy" and "file". Then we can make two packs which
[pack one]
HEAD:file (as delta against HEAD^:file)
HEAD^:file (as base)
[pack two]
HEAD^:file (as delta against HEAD:file)
HEAD:file (as base)
Then no matter which order we start looking at the packs in, we know that we
will always find a delta for "file", because its lookup will always come
immediately after the lookup for "dummy".
. ./
# Create a pack containing the the tree $1 and blob $1:file, with
# the latter stored as a delta against $2:file.
# We convince pack-objects to make the delta in the direction of our choosing
# by marking $2 as a preferred-base edge. That results in $1:file as a thin
# delta, and index-pack completes it by adding $2:file as a base.
# Note that the two variants of "file" must be similar enough to convince git
# to create the delta.
make_pack () {
printf '%s\n' "-$(git rev-parse $2)"
printf '%s dummy\n' "$(git rev-parse $1:dummy)"
printf '%s file\n' "$(git rev-parse $1:file)"
} |
git pack-objects --stdout |
git index-pack --stdin --fix-thin
test_expect_success 'setup' '
test-genrandom base 4096 >base &&
for i in one two
# we want shared content here to encourage deltas...
cp base file &&
echo $i >>file &&
# ...whereas dummy should be short, because we do not want
# deltas that would create duplicates when we --fix-thin
echo $i >dummy &&
git add file dummy &&
test_tick &&
git commit -m $i ||
return 1
done &&
make_pack HEAD^ HEAD &&
make_pack HEAD HEAD^
test_expect_success 'repack' '
# We first want to check that we do not have any internal errors,
# and also that we do not hit the last-ditch cycle-breaking code
# in write_object(), which will issue a warning to stderr.
>expect &&
git repack -ad 2>stderr &&
test_cmp expect stderr &&
# And then double-check that the resulting pack is usable (i.e.,
# we did not fail to notice any cycles). We know we are accessing
# the objects via the new pack here, because "repack -d" will have
# removed the others.
git cat-file blob HEAD:file >/dev/null &&
git cat-file blob HEAD^:file >/dev/null
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