read-cache.c 72.2 KB
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/*
 * GIT - The information manager from hell
 *
 * Copyright (C) Linus Torvalds, 2005
 */
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#define NO_THE_INDEX_COMPATIBILITY_MACROS
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#include "cache.h"
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#include "config.h"
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#include "tempfile.h"
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#include "lockfile.h"
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#include "cache-tree.h"
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#include "refs.h"
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#include "dir.h"
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#include "tree.h"
#include "commit.h"
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#include "blob.h"
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#include "resolve-undo.h"
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#include "strbuf.h"
#include "varint.h"
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#include "split-index.h"
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#include "utf8.h"
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#include "fsmonitor.h"
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/* Mask for the name length in ce_flags in the on-disk index */

#define CE_NAMEMASK  (0x0fff)

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/* Index extensions.
 *
 * The first letter should be 'A'..'Z' for extensions that are not
 * necessary for a correct operation (i.e. optimization data).
 * When new extensions are added that _needs_ to be understood in
 * order to correctly interpret the index file, pick character that
 * is outside the range, to cause the reader to abort.
 */

#define CACHE_EXT(s) ( (s[0]<<24)|(s[1]<<16)|(s[2]<<8)|(s[3]) )
#define CACHE_EXT_TREE 0x54524545	/* "TREE" */
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#define CACHE_EXT_RESOLVE_UNDO 0x52455543 /* "REUC" */
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#define CACHE_EXT_LINK 0x6c696e6b	  /* "link" */
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#define CACHE_EXT_UNTRACKED 0x554E5452	  /* "UNTR" */
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#define CACHE_EXT_FSMONITOR 0x46534D4E	  /* "FSMN" */
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/* changes that can be kept in $GIT_DIR/index (basically all extensions) */
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#define EXTMASK (RESOLVE_UNDO_CHANGED | CACHE_TREE_CHANGED | \
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		 CE_ENTRY_ADDED | CE_ENTRY_REMOVED | CE_ENTRY_CHANGED | \
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		 SPLIT_INDEX_ORDERED | UNTRACKED_CHANGED | FSMONITOR_CHANGED)
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struct index_state the_index;
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static const char *alternate_index_output;
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static void set_index_entry(struct index_state *istate, int nr, struct cache_entry *ce)
{
	istate->cache[nr] = ce;
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	add_name_hash(istate, ce);
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}

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static void replace_index_entry(struct index_state *istate, int nr, struct cache_entry *ce)
{
	struct cache_entry *old = istate->cache[nr];

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	replace_index_entry_in_base(istate, old, ce);
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	remove_name_hash(istate, old);
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	free(old);
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	set_index_entry(istate, nr, ce);
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	ce->ce_flags |= CE_UPDATE_IN_BASE;
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	mark_fsmonitor_invalid(istate, ce);
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	istate->cache_changed |= CE_ENTRY_CHANGED;
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}

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void rename_index_entry_at(struct index_state *istate, int nr, const char *new_name)
{
	struct cache_entry *old = istate->cache[nr], *new;
	int namelen = strlen(new_name);

	new = xmalloc(cache_entry_size(namelen));
	copy_cache_entry(new, old);
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	new->ce_flags &= ~CE_HASHED;
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	new->ce_namelen = namelen;
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	new->index = 0;
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	memcpy(new->name, new_name, namelen + 1);

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	cache_tree_invalidate_path(istate, old->name);
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	untracked_cache_remove_from_index(istate, old->name);
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	remove_index_entry_at(istate, nr);
	add_index_entry(istate, new, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD|ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE);
}

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void fill_stat_data(struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st)
{
	sd->sd_ctime.sec = (unsigned int)st->st_ctime;
	sd->sd_mtime.sec = (unsigned int)st->st_mtime;
	sd->sd_ctime.nsec = ST_CTIME_NSEC(*st);
	sd->sd_mtime.nsec = ST_MTIME_NSEC(*st);
	sd->sd_dev = st->st_dev;
	sd->sd_ino = st->st_ino;
	sd->sd_uid = st->st_uid;
	sd->sd_gid = st->st_gid;
	sd->sd_size = st->st_size;
}

int match_stat_data(const struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st)
{
	int changed = 0;

	if (sd->sd_mtime.sec != (unsigned int)st->st_mtime)
		changed |= MTIME_CHANGED;
	if (trust_ctime && check_stat &&
	    sd->sd_ctime.sec != (unsigned int)st->st_ctime)
		changed |= CTIME_CHANGED;

#ifdef USE_NSEC
	if (check_stat && sd->sd_mtime.nsec != ST_MTIME_NSEC(*st))
		changed |= MTIME_CHANGED;
	if (trust_ctime && check_stat &&
	    sd->sd_ctime.nsec != ST_CTIME_NSEC(*st))
		changed |= CTIME_CHANGED;
#endif

	if (check_stat) {
		if (sd->sd_uid != (unsigned int) st->st_uid ||
			sd->sd_gid != (unsigned int) st->st_gid)
			changed |= OWNER_CHANGED;
		if (sd->sd_ino != (unsigned int) st->st_ino)
			changed |= INODE_CHANGED;
	}

#ifdef USE_STDEV
	/*
	 * st_dev breaks on network filesystems where different
	 * clients will have different views of what "device"
	 * the filesystem is on
	 */
	if (check_stat && sd->sd_dev != (unsigned int) st->st_dev)
			changed |= INODE_CHANGED;
#endif

	if (sd->sd_size != (unsigned int) st->st_size)
		changed |= DATA_CHANGED;

	return changed;
}

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/*
 * This only updates the "non-critical" parts of the directory
 * cache, ie the parts that aren't tracked by GIT, and only used
 * to validate the cache.
 */
void fill_stat_cache_info(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
{
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	fill_stat_data(&ce->ce_stat_data, st);
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	if (assume_unchanged)
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		ce->ce_flags |= CE_VALID;
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	if (S_ISREG(st->st_mode)) {
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		ce_mark_uptodate(ce);
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		mark_fsmonitor_valid(ce);
	}
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}

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static int ce_compare_data(const struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
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{
	int match = -1;
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	int fd = git_open_cloexec(ce->name, O_RDONLY);
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	if (fd >= 0) {
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		struct object_id oid;
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		if (!index_fd(&oid, fd, st, OBJ_BLOB, ce->name, 0))
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			match = oidcmp(&oid, &ce->oid);
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		/* index_fd() closed the file descriptor already */
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	}
	return match;
}

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static int ce_compare_link(const struct cache_entry *ce, size_t expected_size)
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{
	int match = -1;
	void *buffer;
	unsigned long size;
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	enum object_type type;
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	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
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	if (strbuf_readlink(&sb, ce->name, expected_size))
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		return -1;
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	buffer = read_sha1_file(ce->oid.hash, &type, &size);
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	if (buffer) {
		if (size == sb.len)
			match = memcmp(buffer, sb.buf, size);
		free(buffer);
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	}
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	strbuf_release(&sb);
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	return match;
}

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static int ce_compare_gitlink(const struct cache_entry *ce)
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{
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	struct object_id oid;
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	/*
	 * We don't actually require that the .git directory
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	 * under GITLINK directory be a valid git directory. It
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	 * might even be missing (in case nobody populated that
	 * sub-project).
	 *
	 * If so, we consider it always to match.
	 */
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	if (resolve_gitlink_ref(ce->name, "HEAD", &oid) < 0)
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		return 0;
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	return oidcmp(&oid, &ce->oid);
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}

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static int ce_modified_check_fs(const struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
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{
	switch (st->st_mode & S_IFMT) {
	case S_IFREG:
		if (ce_compare_data(ce, st))
			return DATA_CHANGED;
		break;
	case S_IFLNK:
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		if (ce_compare_link(ce, xsize_t(st->st_size)))
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			return DATA_CHANGED;
		break;
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	case S_IFDIR:
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		if (S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode))
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			return ce_compare_gitlink(ce) ? DATA_CHANGED : 0;
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		/* else fallthrough */
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	default:
		return TYPE_CHANGED;
	}
	return 0;
}

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static int ce_match_stat_basic(const struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
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{
	unsigned int changed = 0;

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	if (ce->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE)
		return MODE_CHANGED | DATA_CHANGED | TYPE_CHANGED;

	switch (ce->ce_mode & S_IFMT) {
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	case S_IFREG:
		changed |= !S_ISREG(st->st_mode) ? TYPE_CHANGED : 0;
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		/* We consider only the owner x bit to be relevant for
		 * "mode changes"
		 */
		if (trust_executable_bit &&
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		    (0100 & (ce->ce_mode ^ st->st_mode)))
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			changed |= MODE_CHANGED;
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		break;
	case S_IFLNK:
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		if (!S_ISLNK(st->st_mode) &&
		    (has_symlinks || !S_ISREG(st->st_mode)))
			changed |= TYPE_CHANGED;
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		break;
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	case S_IFGITLINK:
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		/* We ignore most of the st_xxx fields for gitlinks */
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		if (!S_ISDIR(st->st_mode))
			changed |= TYPE_CHANGED;
		else if (ce_compare_gitlink(ce))
			changed |= DATA_CHANGED;
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		return changed;
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	default:
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		die("internal error: ce_mode is %o", ce->ce_mode);
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	}
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	changed |= match_stat_data(&ce->ce_stat_data, st);
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	/* Racily smudged entry? */
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	if (!ce->ce_stat_data.sd_size) {
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		if (!is_empty_blob_sha1(ce->oid.hash))
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			changed |= DATA_CHANGED;
	}

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	return changed;
}

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static int is_racy_stat(const struct index_state *istate,
			const struct stat_data *sd)
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{
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	return (istate->timestamp.sec &&
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#ifdef USE_NSEC
		 /* nanosecond timestamped files can also be racy! */
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		(istate->timestamp.sec < sd->sd_mtime.sec ||
		 (istate->timestamp.sec == sd->sd_mtime.sec &&
		  istate->timestamp.nsec <= sd->sd_mtime.nsec))
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#else
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		istate->timestamp.sec <= sd->sd_mtime.sec
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#endif
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		);
}

static int is_racy_timestamp(const struct index_state *istate,
			     const struct cache_entry *ce)
{
	return (!S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode) &&
		is_racy_stat(istate, &ce->ce_stat_data));
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}

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int match_stat_data_racy(const struct index_state *istate,
			 const struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st)
{
	if (is_racy_stat(istate, sd))
		return MTIME_CHANGED;
	return match_stat_data(sd, st);
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}

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int ie_match_stat(struct index_state *istate,
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		  const struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st,
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		  unsigned int options)
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{
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	unsigned int changed;
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	int ignore_valid = options & CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID;
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	int ignore_skip_worktree = options & CE_MATCH_IGNORE_SKIP_WORKTREE;
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	int assume_racy_is_modified = options & CE_MATCH_RACY_IS_DIRTY;
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	int ignore_fsmonitor = options & CE_MATCH_IGNORE_FSMONITOR;
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	if (!ignore_fsmonitor)
		refresh_fsmonitor(istate);
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	/*
	 * If it's marked as always valid in the index, it's
	 * valid whatever the checked-out copy says.
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	 *
	 * skip-worktree has the same effect with higher precedence
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	 */
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	if (!ignore_skip_worktree && ce_skip_worktree(ce))
		return 0;
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	if (!ignore_valid && (ce->ce_flags & CE_VALID))
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		return 0;
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	if (!ignore_fsmonitor && (ce->ce_flags & CE_FSMONITOR_VALID))
		return 0;
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	/*
	 * Intent-to-add entries have not been added, so the index entry
	 * by definition never matches what is in the work tree until it
	 * actually gets added.
	 */
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	if (ce_intent_to_add(ce))
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		return DATA_CHANGED | TYPE_CHANGED | MODE_CHANGED;

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	changed = ce_match_stat_basic(ce, st);
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	/*
	 * Within 1 second of this sequence:
	 * 	echo xyzzy >file && git-update-index --add file
	 * running this command:
	 * 	echo frotz >file
	 * would give a falsely clean cache entry.  The mtime and
	 * length match the cache, and other stat fields do not change.
	 *
	 * We could detect this at update-index time (the cache entry
	 * being registered/updated records the same time as "now")
	 * and delay the return from git-update-index, but that would
	 * effectively mean we can make at most one commit per second,
	 * which is not acceptable.  Instead, we check cache entries
	 * whose mtime are the same as the index file timestamp more
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	 * carefully than others.
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	 */
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	if (!changed && is_racy_timestamp(istate, ce)) {
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		if (assume_racy_is_modified)
			changed |= DATA_CHANGED;
		else
			changed |= ce_modified_check_fs(ce, st);
	}
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	return changed;
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}

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int ie_modified(struct index_state *istate,
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		const struct cache_entry *ce,
		struct stat *st, unsigned int options)
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{
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	int changed, changed_fs;
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	changed = ie_match_stat(istate, ce, st, options);
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	if (!changed)
		return 0;
	/*
	 * If the mode or type has changed, there's no point in trying
	 * to refresh the entry - it's not going to match
	 */
	if (changed & (MODE_CHANGED | TYPE_CHANGED))
		return changed;

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	/*
	 * Immediately after read-tree or update-index --cacheinfo,
	 * the length field is zero, as we have never even read the
	 * lstat(2) information once, and we cannot trust DATA_CHANGED
	 * returned by ie_match_stat() which in turn was returned by
	 * ce_match_stat_basic() to signal that the filesize of the
	 * blob changed.  We have to actually go to the filesystem to
	 * see if the contents match, and if so, should answer "unchanged".
	 *
	 * The logic does not apply to gitlinks, as ce_match_stat_basic()
	 * already has checked the actual HEAD from the filesystem in the
	 * subproject.  If ie_match_stat() already said it is different,
	 * then we know it is.
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	 */
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	if ((changed & DATA_CHANGED) &&
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	    (S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode) || ce->ce_stat_data.sd_size != 0))
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		return changed;

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	changed_fs = ce_modified_check_fs(ce, st);
	if (changed_fs)
		return changed | changed_fs;
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	return 0;
}

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int base_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1,
		      const char *name2, int len2, int mode2)
{
	unsigned char c1, c2;
	int len = len1 < len2 ? len1 : len2;
	int cmp;

	cmp = memcmp(name1, name2, len);
	if (cmp)
		return cmp;
	c1 = name1[len];
	c2 = name2[len];
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	if (!c1 && S_ISDIR(mode1))
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		c1 = '/';
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	if (!c2 && S_ISDIR(mode2))
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		c2 = '/';
	return (c1 < c2) ? -1 : (c1 > c2) ? 1 : 0;
}

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/*
 * df_name_compare() is identical to base_name_compare(), except it
 * compares conflicting directory/file entries as equal. Note that
 * while a directory name compares as equal to a regular file, they
 * then individually compare _differently_ to a filename that has
 * a dot after the basename (because '\0' < '.' < '/').
 *
 * This is used by routines that want to traverse the git namespace
 * but then handle conflicting entries together when possible.
 */
int df_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1,
		    const char *name2, int len2, int mode2)
{
	int len = len1 < len2 ? len1 : len2, cmp;
	unsigned char c1, c2;

	cmp = memcmp(name1, name2, len);
	if (cmp)
		return cmp;
	/* Directories and files compare equal (same length, same name) */
	if (len1 == len2)
		return 0;
	c1 = name1[len];
	if (!c1 && S_ISDIR(mode1))
		c1 = '/';
	c2 = name2[len];
	if (!c2 && S_ISDIR(mode2))
		c2 = '/';
	if (c1 == '/' && !c2)
		return 0;
	if (c2 == '/' && !c1)
		return 0;
	return c1 - c2;
}

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int name_compare(const char *name1, size_t len1, const char *name2, size_t len2)
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{
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	size_t min_len = (len1 < len2) ? len1 : len2;
	int cmp = memcmp(name1, name2, min_len);
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	if (cmp)
		return cmp;
	if (len1 < len2)
		return -1;
	if (len1 > len2)
		return 1;
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	return 0;
}

int cache_name_stage_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int stage1, const char *name2, int len2, int stage2)
{
	int cmp;

	cmp = name_compare(name1, len1, name2, len2);
	if (cmp)
		return cmp;
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	if (stage1 < stage2)
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		return -1;
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	if (stage1 > stage2)
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		return 1;
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	return 0;
}

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static int index_name_stage_pos(const struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen, int stage)
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{
	int first, last;

	first = 0;
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	last = istate->cache_nr;
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	while (last > first) {
		int next = (last + first) >> 1;
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		struct cache_entry *ce = istate->cache[next];
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		int cmp = cache_name_stage_compare(name, namelen, stage, ce->name, ce_namelen(ce), ce_stage(ce));
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		if (!cmp)
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			return next;
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		if (cmp < 0) {
			last = next;
			continue;
		}
		first = next+1;
	}
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	return -first-1;
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}

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int index_name_pos(const struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen)
{
	return index_name_stage_pos(istate, name, namelen, 0);
}

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int remove_index_entry_at(struct index_state *istate, int pos)
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{
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	struct cache_entry *ce = istate->cache[pos];

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	record_resolve_undo(istate, ce);
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	remove_name_hash(istate, ce);
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	save_or_free_index_entry(istate, ce);
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	istate->cache_changed |= CE_ENTRY_REMOVED;
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	istate->cache_nr--;
	if (pos >= istate->cache_nr)
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		return 0;
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	MOVE_ARRAY(istate->cache + pos, istate->cache + pos + 1,
		   istate->cache_nr - pos);
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	return 1;
}

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/*
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 * Remove all cache entries marked for removal, that is where
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 * CE_REMOVE is set in ce_flags.  This is much more effective than
 * calling remove_index_entry_at() for each entry to be removed.
 */
void remove_marked_cache_entries(struct index_state *istate)
{
	struct cache_entry **ce_array = istate->cache;
	unsigned int i, j;

	for (i = j = 0; i < istate->cache_nr; i++) {
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		if (ce_array[i]->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE) {
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			remove_name_hash(istate, ce_array[i]);
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			save_or_free_index_entry(istate, ce_array[i]);
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		}
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		else
			ce_array[j++] = ce_array[i];
	}
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	if (j == istate->cache_nr)
		return;
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	istate->cache_changed |= CE_ENTRY_REMOVED;
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	istate->cache_nr = j;
}

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int remove_file_from_index(struct index_state *istate, const char *path)
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{
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	int pos = index_name_pos(istate, path, strlen(path));
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	if (pos < 0)
		pos = -pos-1;
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	cache_tree_invalidate_path(istate, path);
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	untracked_cache_remove_from_index(istate, path);
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	while (pos < istate->cache_nr && !strcmp(istate->cache[pos]->name, path))
		remove_index_entry_at(istate, pos);
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	return 0;
}

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static int compare_name(struct cache_entry *ce, const char *path, int namelen)
{
	return namelen != ce_namelen(ce) || memcmp(path, ce->name, namelen);
}

static int index_name_pos_also_unmerged(struct index_state *istate,
	const char *path, int namelen)
{
	int pos = index_name_pos(istate, path, namelen);
	struct cache_entry *ce;

	if (pos >= 0)
		return pos;

	/* maybe unmerged? */
	pos = -1 - pos;
	if (pos >= istate->cache_nr ||
			compare_name((ce = istate->cache[pos]), path, namelen))
		return -1;

	/* order of preference: stage 2, 1, 3 */
	if (ce_stage(ce) == 1 && pos + 1 < istate->cache_nr &&
			ce_stage((ce = istate->cache[pos + 1])) == 2 &&
			!compare_name(ce, path, namelen))
		pos++;
	return pos;
}

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static int different_name(struct cache_entry *ce, struct cache_entry *alias)
{
	int len = ce_namelen(ce);
	return ce_namelen(alias) != len || memcmp(ce->name, alias->name, len);
}

/*
 * If we add a filename that aliases in the cache, we will use the
 * name that we already have - but we don't want to update the same
 * alias twice, because that implies that there were actually two
 * different files with aliasing names!
 *
 * So we use the CE_ADDED flag to verify that the alias was an old
 * one before we accept it as
 */
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static struct cache_entry *create_alias_ce(struct index_state *istate,
					   struct cache_entry *ce,
					   struct cache_entry *alias)
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{
	int len;
	struct cache_entry *new;

	if (alias->ce_flags & CE_ADDED)
		die("Will not add file alias '%s' ('%s' already exists in index)", ce->name, alias->name);

	/* Ok, create the new entry using the name of the existing alias */
	len = ce_namelen(alias);
	new = xcalloc(1, cache_entry_size(len));
	memcpy(new->name, alias->name, len);
	copy_cache_entry(new, ce);
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	save_or_free_index_entry(istate, ce);
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	return new;
}

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void set_object_name_for_intent_to_add_entry(struct cache_entry *ce)
633
{
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	struct object_id oid;
	if (write_object_file("", 0, blob_type, &oid))
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		die("cannot create an empty blob in the object database");
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	oidcpy(&ce->oid, &oid);
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}

640
int add_to_index(struct index_state *istate, const char *path, struct stat *st, int flags)
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{
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	int size, namelen, was_same;
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	mode_t st_mode = st->st_mode;
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	struct cache_entry *ce, *alias = NULL;
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	unsigned ce_option = CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID|CE_MATCH_IGNORE_SKIP_WORKTREE|CE_MATCH_RACY_IS_DIRTY;
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	int verbose = flags & (ADD_CACHE_VERBOSE | ADD_CACHE_PRETEND);
	int pretend = flags & ADD_CACHE_PRETEND;
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	int intent_only = flags & ADD_CACHE_INTENT;
	int add_option = (ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD|ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE|
			  (intent_only ? ADD_CACHE_NEW_ONLY : 0));
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	int newflags = HASH_WRITE_OBJECT;

	if (flags & HASH_RENORMALIZE)
		newflags |= HASH_RENORMALIZE;
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	if (!S_ISREG(st_mode) && !S_ISLNK(st_mode) && !S_ISDIR(st_mode))
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		return error("%s: can only add regular files, symbolic links or git-directories", path);
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	namelen = strlen(path);
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	if (S_ISDIR(st_mode)) {
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		while (namelen && path[namelen-1] == '/')
			namelen--;
	}
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	size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
	memcpy(ce->name, path, namelen);
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	ce->ce_namelen = namelen;
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	if (!intent_only)
		fill_stat_cache_info(ce, st);
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	else
		ce->ce_flags |= CE_INTENT_TO_ADD;
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	if (trust_executable_bit && has_symlinks) {
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		ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(st_mode);
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	} else {
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		/* If there is an existing entry, pick the mode bits and type
		 * from it, otherwise assume unexecutable regular file.
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		 */
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		struct cache_entry *ent;
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		int pos = index_name_pos_also_unmerged(istate, path, namelen);
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		ent = (0 <= pos) ? istate->cache[pos] : NULL;
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		ce->ce_mode = ce_mode_from_stat(ent, st_mode);
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	}

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	/* When core.ignorecase=true, determine if a directory of the same name but differing
	 * case already exists within the Git repository.  If it does, ensure the directory
	 * case of the file being added to the repository matches (is folded into) the existing
	 * entry's directory case.
	 */
	if (ignore_case) {
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		adjust_dirname_case(istate, ce->name);
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	}
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	if (!(flags & HASH_RENORMALIZE)) {
		alias = index_file_exists(istate, ce->name,
					  ce_namelen(ce), ignore_case);
		if (alias &&
		    !ce_stage(alias) &&
		    !ie_match_stat(istate, alias, st, ce_option)) {
			/* Nothing changed, really */
			if (!S_ISGITLINK(alias->ce_mode))
				ce_mark_uptodate(alias);
			alias->ce_flags |= CE_ADDED;
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			free(ce);
			return 0;
		}
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	}
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	if (!intent_only) {
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		if (index_path(&ce->oid, path, st, newflags)) {
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			free(ce);
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			return error("unable to index file %s", path);
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		}
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	} else
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		set_object_name_for_intent_to_add_entry(ce);
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	if (ignore_case && alias && different_name(ce, alias))
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		ce = create_alias_ce(istate, ce, alias);
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	ce->ce_flags |= CE_ADDED;
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	/* It was suspected to be racily clean, but it turns out to be Ok */
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	was_same = (alias &&
		    !ce_stage(alias) &&
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		    !oidcmp(&alias->oid, &ce->oid) &&
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		    ce->ce_mode == alias->ce_mode);

	if (pretend)
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		free(ce);
	else if (add_index_entry(istate, ce, add_option)) {
		free(ce);
		return error("unable to add %s to index", path);
	}
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	if (verbose && !was_same)
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		printf("add '%s'\n", path);
	return 0;
}

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int add_file_to_index(struct index_state *istate, const char *path, int flags)
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{
	struct stat st;
	if (lstat(path, &st))
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		die_errno("unable to stat '%s'", path);
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	return add_to_index(istate, path, &st, flags);
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}

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struct cache_entry *make_cache_entry(unsigned int mode,
		const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, int stage,
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		unsigned int refresh_options)
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{
	int size, len;
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	struct cache_entry *ce, *ret;
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	if (!verify_path(path)) {
		error("Invalid path '%s'", path);
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		return NULL;
757
	}
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	len = strlen(path);
	size = cache_entry_size(len);
	ce = xcalloc(1, size);

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	hashcpy(ce->oid.hash, sha1);
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	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
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	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(stage);
	ce->ce_namelen = len;
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	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);

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	ret = refresh_cache_entry(ce, refresh_options);
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	if (ret != ce)
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		free(ce);
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	return ret;
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}

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/*
 * Chmod an index entry with either +x or -x.
 *
 * Returns -1 if the chmod for the particular cache entry failed (if it's
 * not a regular file), -2 if an invalid flip argument is passed in, 0
 * otherwise.
 */
int chmod_index_entry(struct index_state *istate, struct cache_entry *ce,
		      char flip)
{
	if (!S_ISREG(ce->ce_mode))
		return -1;
	switch (flip) {
	case '+':
		ce->ce_mode |= 0111;
		break;
	case '-':
		ce->ce_mode &= ~0111;
		break;
	default:
		return -2;
	}
	cache_tree_invalidate_path(istate, ce->name);
	ce->ce_flags |= CE_UPDATE_IN_BASE;
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	mark_fsmonitor_invalid(istate, ce);
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	istate->cache_changed |= CE_ENTRY_CHANGED;

	return 0;
}

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int ce_same_name(const struct cache_entry *a, const struct cache_entry *b)
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{
	int len = ce_namelen(a);
	return ce_namelen(b) == len && !memcmp(a->name, b->name, len);
}

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/*
 * We fundamentally don't like some paths: we don't want
 * dot or dot-dot anywhere, and for obvious reasons don't
 * want to recurse into ".git" either.
 *
 * Also, we don't want double slashes or slashes at the
 * end that can make pathnames ambiguous.
 */
static int verify_dotfile(const char *rest)
{
	/*
	 * The first character was '.', but that
	 * has already been discarded, we now test
	 * the rest.
	 */
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	/* "." is not allowed */
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	if (*rest == '\0' || is_dir_sep(*rest))
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		return 0;

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	switch (*rest) {
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	/*
	 * ".git" followed by  NUL or slash is bad. This
	 * shares the path end test with the ".." case.
	 */
	case 'g':
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	case 'G':
		if (rest[1] != 'i' && rest[1] != 'I')
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			break;
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		if (rest[2] != 't' && rest[2] != 'T')
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			break;
		rest += 2;
	/* fallthrough */
	case '.':
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		if (rest[1] == '\0' || is_dir_sep(rest[1]))
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			return 0;
	}
	return 1;
}

int verify_path(const char *path)
{
	char c;

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	if (has_dos_drive_prefix(path))
		return 0;

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	goto inside;
	for (;;) {
		if (!c)
			return 1;
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		if (is_dir_sep(c)) {
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inside:
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			if (protect_hfs && is_hfs_dotgit(path))
				return 0;
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			if (protect_ntfs && is_ntfs_dotgit(path))
				return 0;
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			c = *path++;
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			if ((c == '.' && !verify_dotfile(path)) ||
			    is_dir_sep(c) || c == '\0')
				return 0;
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		}
		c = *path++;
	}
}

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/*
 * Do we have another file that has the beginning components being a
 * proper superset of the name we're trying to add?
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 */
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static int has_file_name(struct index_state *istate,
			 const struct cache_entry *ce, int pos, int ok_to_replace)
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{
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	int retval = 0;
	int len = ce_namelen(ce);
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	int stage = ce_stage(ce);
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	const char *name = ce->name;
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	while (pos < istate->cache_nr) {
		struct cache_entry *p = istate->cache[pos++];
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		if (len >= ce_namelen(p))
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			break;
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		if (memcmp(name, p->name, len))
			break;
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		if (ce_stage(p) != stage)
			continue;
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		if (p->name[len] != '/')
			continue;
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		if (p->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE)
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			continue;
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		retval = -1;
		if (!ok_to_replace)
			break;
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		remove_index_entry_at(istate, --pos);
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	}
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	return retval;
}
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/*
 * Like strcmp(), but also return the offset of the first change.
 * If strings are equal, return the length.
 */
int strcmp_offset(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t *first_change)
{
	size_t k;

	if (!first_change)
		return strcmp(s1, s2);

	for (k = 0; s1[k] == s2[k]; k++)
		if (s1[k] == '\0')
			break;

	*first_change = k;
	return (unsigned char)s1[k] - (unsigned char)s2[k];
}

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/*
 * Do we have another file with a pathname that is a proper
 * subset of the name we're trying to add?
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 *
 * That is, is there another file in the index with a path
 * that matches a sub-directory in the given entry?
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 */
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static int has_dir_name(struct index_state *istate,
			const struct cache_entry *ce, int pos, int ok_to_replace)
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{
	int retval = 0;
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	int stage = ce_stage(ce);
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	const char *name = ce->name;
	const char *slash = name + ce_namelen(ce);
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	size_t len_eq_last;
	int cmp_last = 0;

	/*
	 * We are frequently called during an iteration on a sorted
	 * list of pathnames and while building a new index.  Therefore,
	 * there is a high probability that this entry will eventually
	 * be appended to the index, rather than inserted in the middle.
	 * If we can confirm that, we can avoid binary searches on the
	 * components of the pathname.
	 *
	 * Compare the entry's full path with the last path in the index.
	 */
	if (istate->cache_nr > 0) {
		cmp_last = strcmp_offset(name,
			istate->cache[istate->cache_nr - 1]->name,
			&len_eq_last);
		if (cmp_last > 0) {
			if (len_eq_last == 0) {
				/*
				 * The entry sorts AFTER the last one in the
				 * index and their paths have no common prefix,
				 * so there cannot be a F/D conflict.
				 */
				return retval;
			} else {
				/*
				 * The entry sorts AFTER the last one in the
				 * index, but has a common prefix.  Fall through
				 * to the loop below to disect the entry's path
				 * and see where the difference is.
				 */
			}
		} else if (cmp_last == 0) {
			/*
			 * The entry exactly matches the last one in the
			 * index, but because of multiple stage and CE_REMOVE
			 * items, we fall through and let the regular search
			 * code handle it.
			 */
		}
	}
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987
	for (;;) {
988
		size_t len;
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		for (;;) {
			if (*--slash == '/')
				break;
			if (slash <= ce->name)
				return retval;
		}
		len = slash - name;
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		if (cmp_last > 0) {
			/*
			 * (len + 1) is a directory boundary (including
			 * the trailing slash).  And since the loop is
			 * decrementing "slash", the first iteration is
			 * the longest directory prefix; subsequent
			 * iterations consider parent directories.
			 */

			if (len + 1 <= len_eq_last) {
				/*
				 * The directory prefix (including the trailing
				 * slash) also appears as a prefix in the last
				 * entry, so the remainder cannot collide (because
				 * strcmp said the whole path was greater).
				 *
				 * EQ: last: xxx/A
				 *     this: xxx/B
				 *
				 * LT: last: xxx/file_A
				 *     this: xxx/file_B
				 */
				return retval;
			}

			if (len > len_eq_last) {
				/*
				 * This part of the directory prefix (excluding
				 * the trailing slash) is longer than the known
				 * equal portions, so this sub-directory cannot
				 * collide with a file.
				 *
				 * GT: last: xxxA
				 *     this: xxxB/file
				 */
				return retval;
			}

			if (istate->cache_nr > 0 &&
				ce_namelen(istate->cache[istate->cache_nr - 1]) > len) {
				/*
				 * The directory prefix lines up with part of
				 * a longer file or directory name, but sorts
				 * after it, so this sub-directory cannot
				 * collide with a file.
				 *
				 * last: xxx/yy-file (because '-' sorts before '/')
				 * this: xxx/yy/abc
				 */
				return retval;
			}

			/*
			 * This is a possible collision. Fall through and
			 * let the regular search code handle it.
			 *
			 * last: xxx
			 * this: xxx/file
			 */
		}

1059
		pos = index_name_stage_pos(istate, name, len, stage);
1060
		if (pos >= 0) {
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			/*
			 * Found one, but not so fast.  This could
			 * be a marker that says "I was here, but
			 * I am being removed".  Such an entry is
			 * not a part of the resulting tree, and
			 * it is Ok to have a directory at the same
			 * path.
			 */
1069
			if (!(istate->cache[pos]->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE)) {
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				retval = -1;
				if (!ok_to_replace)
					break;
1073
				remove_index_entry_at(istate, pos);
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				continue;
			}
1076
		}
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		else
			pos = -pos-1;
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		/*
		 * Trivial optimization: if we find an entry that
		 * already matches the sub-directory, then we know
1083
		 * we're ok, and we can exit.
1084
		 */
1085 1086
		while (pos < istate->cache_nr) {
			struct cache_entry *p = istate->cache[pos];
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			if ((ce_namelen(p) <= len) ||
			    (p->name[len] != '/') ||
			    memcmp(p->name, name, len))
				break; /* not our subdirectory */
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			if (ce_stage(p) == stage && !(p->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE))
				/*
				 * p is at the same stage as our entry, and
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				 * is a subdirectory of what we are looking
				 * at, so we cannot have conflicts at our
				 * level or anything shorter.
				 */
				return retval;
			pos++;
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		}
1101
	}
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	return retval;
}

/* We may be in a situation where we already have path/file and path
 * is being added, or we already have path and path/file is being
 * added.  Either one would result in a nonsense tree that has path
 * twice when git-write-tree tries to write it out.  Prevent it.
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 *
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 * If ok-to-replace is specified, we remove the conflicting entries
 * from the cache so the caller should recompute the insert position.
 * When this happens, we return non-zero.
 */
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static int check_file_directory_conflict(struct index_state *istate,
					 const struct cache_entry *ce,
					 int pos, int ok_to_replace)
1117
{
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	int retval;

	/*
	 * When ce is an "I am going away" entry, we allow it to be added
	 */
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	if (ce->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE)
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		return 0;

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	/*
	 * We check if the path is a sub-path of a subsequent pathname
	 * first, since removing those will not change the position
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	 * in the array.
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	 */
1131
	retval = has_file_name(istate, ce, pos, ok_to_replace);
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	/*
	 * Then check if the path might have a clashing sub-directory
	 * before it.
	 */
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	return retval + has_dir_name(istate, ce, pos, ok_to_replace);
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}

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static int add_index_entry_with_check(struct index_state *istate, struct cache_entry *ce, int option)
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{
	int pos;
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	int ok_to_add = option & ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD;
	int ok_to_replace = option & ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE;
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	int skip_df_check = option & ADD_CACHE_SKIP_DFCHECK;
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	int new_only = option & ADD_CACHE_NEW_ONLY;
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	if (!(option & ADD_CACHE_KEEP_CACHE_TREE))
		cache_tree_invalidate_path(istate, ce