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giteveryday(7)
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NAME
----
giteveryday - A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git

SYNOPSIS
--------

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Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
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DESCRIPTION
-----------
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Git users can broadly be grouped into four categories for the purposes of
describing here a small set of useful command for everyday Git.
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*	<<STANDALONE,Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential
	for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.
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*	If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
	the <<PARTICIPANT,Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
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*	People who play the <<INTEGRATOR,Integrator>> role need to learn some
	more commands in addition to the above.
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*	<<ADMINISTRATION,Repository Administration>> commands are for system
	administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
	of Git repositories.


Individual Developer (Standalone)[[STANDALONE]]
-----------------------------------------------
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A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
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other people, and works alone in a single repository, using the
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following commands.

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  * linkgit:git-init[1] to create a new repository.

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  * linkgit:git-log[1] to see what happened.
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  * linkgit:git-checkout[1] and linkgit:git-branch[1] to switch
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    branches.

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  * linkgit:git-add[1] to manage the index file.
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  * linkgit:git-diff[1] and linkgit:git-status[1] to see what
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    you are in the middle of doing.
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  * linkgit:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
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  * linkgit:git-reset[1] and linkgit:git-checkout[1] (with
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    pathname parameters) to undo changes.

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  * linkgit:git-merge[1] to merge between local branches.
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  * linkgit:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
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  * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark a known point.
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Examples
~~~~~~~~

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Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.::
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------------
$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
$ cd frotz
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$ git init
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$ git add . <1>
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$ git commit -m "import of frotz source tree."
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$ git tag v2.43 <2>
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<1> add everything under the current directory.
<2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
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Create a topic branch and develop.::
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------------
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$ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
$ edit/compile/test
$ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
$ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
$ edit/compile/test
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$ git diff HEAD <4>
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$ git commit -a -s <5>
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$ edit/compile/test
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$ git diff HEAD^ <6>
$ git commit -a --amend <7>
$ git checkout master <8>
$ git merge alsa-audio <9>
$ git log --since='3 days ago' <10>
$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <11>
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<1> create a new topic branch.
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<2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
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<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
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modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
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<4> to see what changes you are committing.
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<5> commit everything, as you have tested, with your sign-off.
<6> look at all your changes including the previous commit.
<7> amend the previous commit, adding all your new changes,
using your original message.
<8> switch to the master branch.
<9> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
<10> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
combined and include `-10` (to show up to 10 commits),
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`--until=2005-12-10`, etc.
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<11> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
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directory, since `v2.43` tag.
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Individual Developer (Participant)[[PARTICIPANT]]
-------------------------------------------------
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A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.

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  * linkgit:git-clone[1] from the upstream to prime your local
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    repository.

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  * linkgit:git-pull[1] and linkgit:git-fetch[1] from "origin"
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    to keep up-to-date with the upstream.
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  * linkgit:git-push[1] to shared repository, if you adopt CVS
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    style shared repository workflow.

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  * linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
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    you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.

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  * linkgit:git-send-email[1] to send your e-mail submission without
    corruption by your MUA.

  * linkgit:git-request-pull[1] to create a summary of changes
    for your upstream to pull.


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Examples
~~~~~~~~

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Clone the upstream and work on it.  Feed changes to upstream.::
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------------
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
$ cd my2.6
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$ git checkout -b mine master <1>
$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <2>
$ git format-patch master <3>
$ git send-email --to="person <email@example.com>" 00*.patch <4>
$ git checkout master <5>
$ git pull <6>
$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <7>
$ git ls-remote --heads http://git.kernel.org/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git <8>
$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <9>
$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <10>
$ git gc <11>
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<1> checkout a new branch `mine` from master.
<2> repeat as needed.
<3> extract patches from your branch, relative to master,
<4> and email them.
<5> return to `master`, ready to see what's new
<6> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
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current branch.
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<7> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
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since last time we checked, only in the
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area we are interested in.
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<8> check the branch names in an external repository (if not known).
<9> fetch from a specific branch `ALL` from a specific repository
and merge it.
<10> revert the pull.
<11> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
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Push into another repository.::
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------------
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satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz frotz <1>
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satellite$ cd frotz
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satellite$ git config --get-regexp '^(remote|branch)\.' <2>
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remote.origin.url mothership:frotz
remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
branch.master.remote origin
branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
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satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
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	   +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/satellite/* <3>
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satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
satellite$ git push origin <4>

mothership$ cd frotz
mothership$ git checkout master
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mothership$ git merge satellite/master <5>
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<1> mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
machine.
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<2> clone sets these configuration variables by default.
It arranges `git pull` to fetch and store the branches of mothership
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machine to local `remotes/origin/*` remote-tracking branches.
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<3> arrange `git push` to push all local branches to
their corresponding branch of the mothership machine.
<4> push will stash all our work away on `remotes/satellite/*`
remote-tracking branches on the mothership machine.  You could use this
as a back-up method. Likewise, you can pretend that mothership
"fetched" from you (useful when access is one sided).
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<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
machine into the master branch.
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Branch off of a specific tag.::
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------------
$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
$ git checkout master
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$ git cherry-pick v2.6.14..private2.6.14 <2>
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<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
tag.
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<2> forward port all changes in `private2.6.14` branch to `master` branch
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without a formal "merging". Or longhand +
`git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
  git am -3 -k`
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An alternate participant submission mechanism is using the
`git request-pull` or pull-request mechanisms (e.g as used on
GitHub (www.github.com) to notify your upstream of your
contribution.
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Integrator[[INTEGRATOR]]
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------------------------

A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.

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This section can also be used by those who respond to `git
request-pull` or pull-request on GitHub (www.github.com) to
integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and
as an integrator.


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  * linkgit:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
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    contributors.

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  * linkgit:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
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  * linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
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    alternative to contributors.

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  * linkgit:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
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  * linkgit:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
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Examples
~~~~~~~~

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A typical integrator's Git day.::
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------------
$ git status <1>
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$ git branch --no-merged master <2>
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$ mailx <3>
& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
& q
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$ git checkout -b topic/one master
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$ git am -3 -i -s ./+to-apply <4>
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$ compile/test
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$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s ./+hold-linus <5>
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$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
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$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next <7>
$ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus <8>
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$ git checkout maint
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$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
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$ compile/test
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$ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x <10>
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$ git fetch ko && for branch in master maint next pu <11>
    do
	git show-branch ko/$branch $branch <12>
    done
$ git push --follow-tags ko <13>
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<1> see what you were in the middle of doing, if anything.
<2> see which branches haven't been merged into `master` yet.
Likewise for any other integration branches e.g. `maint`, `next`
and `pu` (potential updates).
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<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
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that are not quite ready (other mail readers are available).
<4> apply them, interactively, with your sign-offs.
<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with sign-offs.
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<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
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master or exposed as a part of a stable branch.
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<7> restart `pu` every time from the next.
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<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
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<9> backport a critical fix.
<10> create a signed tag.
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<11> make sure master was not accidentally rewound beyond that
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already pushed out.
<12> In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
everything `ko/master` has, and `next` should have
everything `ko/next` has, etc.
<13> push out the bleeding edge, together with new tags that point
into the pushed history.

In this example, the `ko` shorthand points at the Git maintainer's
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repository at kernel.org, and looks like this:
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(in .git/config)
[remote "ko"]
	url = kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
	fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/ko/*
	push = refs/heads/master
	push = refs/heads/next
	push = +refs/heads/pu
	push = refs/heads/maint
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------------
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Repository Administration[[ADMINISTRATION]]
-------------------------------------------
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A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
and maintain access to the repository by developers.

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  * linkgit:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
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    repository.

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  * linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
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    for shared central repository users.

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  * linkgit:git-http-backend[1] provides a server side implementation
    of Git-over-HTTP ("Smart http") allowing both fetch and push services.

  * linkgit:gitweb[1] provides a web front-end to Git repositories,
    which can be set-up using the linkgit:git-instaweb[1] script.

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link:howto/update-hook-example.html[update hook howto] has a good
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example of managing a shared central repository.
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In addition there are a number of other widely deployed hosting, browsing
and reviewing solutions such as:

  * gitolite, gerrit code review, cgit and others.
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Examples
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We assume the following in /etc/services::
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------------
$ grep 9418 /etc/services
git		9418/tcp		# Git Version Control System
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Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.::
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------------
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$ grep git /etc/inetd.conf
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git	stream	tcp	nowait	nobody \
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  /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --export-all /pub/scm
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------------
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The actual configuration line should be on one line.
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Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
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------------
$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
# default: off
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# description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
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service git
{
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	disable = no
	type            = UNLISTED
	port            = 9418
	socket_type     = stream
	wait            = no
	user            = nobody
	server          = /usr/bin/git-daemon
	server_args     = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
	log_on_failure  += USERID
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}
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Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system.
Others might be different.

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Give push/pull only access to developers using git-over-ssh.::

e.g. those using:
`$ git push/pull ssh://host.xz/pub/scm/project`
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------------
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$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
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alice:x:1000:1000::/home/alice:/usr/bin/git-shell
bob:x:1001:1001::/home/bob:/usr/bin/git-shell
cindy:x:1002:1002::/home/cindy:/usr/bin/git-shell
david:x:1003:1003::/home/david:/usr/bin/git-shell
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$ grep git /etc/shells <2>
/usr/bin/git-shell
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<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
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allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`.  The users require
ssh access to the machine.
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<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
as the login shell.

CVS-style shared repository.::
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$ grep git /etc/group <1>
git:x:9418:alice,bob,cindy,david
$ cd /home/devo.git
$ ls -l <2>
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 david git    17 Dec  4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 branches
  -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    84 Dec  4 22:40 config
  -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    58 Dec  4 22:40 description
  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 hooks
  -rw-rw-r--   1 david git 37504 Dec  4 22:40 index
  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 info
  drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 objects
  drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Nov  7 14:58 refs
  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 remotes
$ ls -l hooks/update <3>
  -r-xr-xr-x   1 david git  3536 Dec  4 22:40 update
$ cat info/allowed-users <4>
refs/heads/master	alice\|cindy
refs/heads/doc-update	bob
refs/tags/v[0-9]*	david
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<1> place the developers into the same git group.
<2> and make the shared repository writable by the group.
<3> use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/
for branch policy control.
<4> alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update.
david is the release manager and is the only person who can
create and push version tags.
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GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite