Commit b84f767c authored by Derrick Stolee's avatar Derrick Stolee Committed by Junio C Hamano

commit-graph: add format document

Add document specifying the binary format for commit graphs. This
format allows for:

* New versions.
* New hash functions and hash lengths.
* Optional extensions.

Basic header information is followed by a binary table of contents
into "chunks" that include:

* An ordered list of commit object IDs.
* A 256-entry fanout into that list of OIDs.
* A list of metadata for the commits.
* A list of "large edges" to enable octopus merges.

The format automatically includes two parent positions for every
commit. This favors speed over space, since using only one position
per commit would cause an extra level of indirection for every merge
commit. (Octopus merges suffer from this indirection, but they are
very rare.)
Signed-off-by: Derrick Stolee's avatarDerrick Stolee <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarJunio C Hamano <>
parent cfe83216
Git commit graph format
The Git commit graph stores a list of commit OIDs and some associated
metadata, including:
- The generation number of the commit. Commits with no parents have
generation number 1; commits with parents have generation number
one more than the maximum generation number of its parents. We
reserve zero as special, and can be used to mark a generation
number invalid or as "not computed".
- The root tree OID.
- The commit date.
- The parents of the commit, stored using positional references within
the graph file.
These positional references are stored as unsigned 32-bit integers
corresponding to the array position withing the list of commit OIDs. We
use the most-significant bit for special purposes, so we can store at most
(1 << 31) - 1 (around 2 billion) commits.
== Commit graph files have the following format:
In order to allow extensions that add extra data to the graph, we organize
the body into "chunks" and provide a binary lookup table at the beginning
of the body. The header includes certain values, such as number of chunks
and hash type.
All 4-byte numbers are in network order.
4-byte signature:
The signature is: {'C', 'G', 'P', 'H'}
1-byte version number:
Currently, the only valid version is 1.
1-byte Hash Version (1 = SHA-1)
We infer the hash length (H) from this value.
1-byte number (C) of "chunks"
1-byte (reserved for later use)
Current clients should ignore this value.
(C + 1) * 12 bytes listing the table of contents for the chunks:
First 4 bytes describe the chunk id. Value 0 is a terminating label.
Other 8 bytes provide the byte-offset in current file for chunk to
start. (Chunks are ordered contiguously in the file, so you can infer
the length using the next chunk position if necessary.) Each chunk
ID appears at most once.
The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
otherwise specified.
OID Fanout (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'F'}) (256 * 4 bytes)
The ith entry, F[i], stores the number of OIDs with first
byte at most i. Thus F[255] stores the total
number of commits (N).
OID Lookup (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'L'}) (N * H bytes)
The OIDs for all commits in the graph, sorted in ascending order.
Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'G', 'E', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
* The first H bytes are for the OID of the root tree.
* The next 8 bytes are for the positions of the first two parents
of the ith commit. Stores value 0xffffffff if no parent in that
position. If there are more than two parents, the second value
has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store an array
position into the Large Edge List chunk.
* The next 8 bytes store the generation number of the commit and
the commit time in seconds since EPOCH. The generation number
uses the higher 30 bits of the first 4 bytes, while the commit
time uses the 32 bits of the second 4 bytes, along with the lowest
2 bits of the lowest byte, storing the 33rd and 34th bit of the
commit time.
Large Edge List (ID: {'E', 'D', 'G', 'E'}) [Optional]
This list of 4-byte values store the second through nth parents for
all octopus merges. The second parent value in the commit data stores
an array position within this list along with the most-significant bit
on. Starting at that array position, iterate through this list of commit
positions for the parents until reaching a value with the most-significant
bit on. The other bits correspond to the position of the last parent.
H-byte HASH-checksum of all of the above.
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