Commit 61f693bd authored by Jon Loeliger's avatar Jon Loeliger Committed by Junio C Hamano

Added documentation for few missing options.

More $ shell prompts in examples.
Minor English grammar improvements.
Added a few "See Also"s.
Use back-ticks on more command examples.
Signed-off-by: default avatarJon Loeliger <[email protected]>
Signed-off-by: default avatarJunio C Hamano <[email protected]>
parent 23c99d84
......@@ -45,53 +45,71 @@ OPTIONS
The order of the flags used to matter, but not anymore.
Just doing "git-checkout-index" does nothing. You probably meant
"git-checkout-index -a". And if you want to force it, you want
"git-checkout-index -f -a".
Just doing `git-checkout-index` does nothing. You probably meant
`git-checkout-index -a`. And if you want to force it, you want
`git-checkout-index -f -a`.
Intuitiveness is not the goal here. Repeatability is. The reason for
the "no arguments means no work" thing is that from scripts you are
supposed to be able to do things like:
the "no arguments means no work" behavior is that from scripts you are
supposed to be able to do:
find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 git-checkout-index -f --
----------------
$ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 git-checkout-index -f --
----------------
which will force all existing `*.h` files to be replaced with their
cached copies. If an empty command line implied "all", then this would
force-refresh everything in the index, which was not the point.
To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
The `--` is just a good idea when you know the rest will be filenames;
it will prevent problems with a filename of, for example, `-a`.
Using `--` is probably a good policy in scripts.
git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
Oh, and the "--" is just a good idea when you know the rest will be
filenames. Just so that you wouldn't have a filename of "-a" causing
problems (not possible in the above example, but get used to it in
scripting!).
The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use
git-checkout-index as an "export as tree" function. Just read the
desired tree into the index, and do a
git-checkout-index --prefix=git-export-dir/ -a
and git-checkout-index will "export" the index into the specified
EXAMPLES
--------
To update and refresh only the files already checked out::
+
----------------
$ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
----------------
Using `git-checkout-index` to "export an entire tree"::
The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use
`git-checkout-index` as an "export as tree" function.
Just read the desired tree into the index, and do:
+
----------------
$ git-checkout-index --prefix=git-export-dir/ -a
----------------
+
`git-checkout-index` will "export" the index into the specified
directory.
+
The final "/" is important. The exported name is literally just
prefixed with the specified string. Contrast this with the
following example.
NOTE The final "/" is important. The exported name is literally just
prefixed with the specified string, so you can also do something like
Export files with a prefix::
+
----------------
$ git-checkout-index --prefix=.merged- Makefile
----------------
+
This will check out the currently cached copy of `Makefile`
into the file `.merged-Makefile`.
git-checkout-index --prefix=.merged- Makefile
to check out the currently cached copy of `Makefile` into the file
`.merged-Makefile`
Author
------
Written by Linus Torvalds <[email protected]>
Documentation
--------------
Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <[email protected]>.
Documentation by David Greaves,
Junio C Hamano and the git-list <[email protected]>.
GIT
---
......
......@@ -8,7 +8,14 @@ git-init-db - Creates an empty git repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
'git-init-db'
'git-init-db' [--template=<template_directory>]
OPTIONS
-------
--template=<template_directory>::
Provide the directory in from which templates will be used.
DESCRIPTION
-----------
......@@ -16,14 +23,26 @@ This simply creates an empty git repository - basically a `.git` directory
and `.git/object/??/`, `.git/refs/heads` and `.git/refs/tags` directories,
and links `.git/HEAD` symbolically to `.git/refs/heads/master`.
If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies a path
If the `$GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it specifies a path
to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the repository.
If the object storage directory is specified via the 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'
If the object storage directory is specified via the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`
environment variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects` directory is used.
"git-init-db" won't hurt an existing repository.
`git-init-db` won't hurt an existing repository.
EXAMPLES
--------
Start a new git repository for an existing code base::
+
----------------
$ cd /path/to/my/codebase
$ git-init-db
----------------
Author
......
......@@ -9,19 +9,22 @@ residing in a pack file.
SYNOPSIS
--------
'git-prune-packed'
'git-prune-packed' [-n]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This program search the GIT_OBJECT_DIR for all objects that currently exist in
a pack file as well as the independent object directories.
This program search the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIR` for all objects that currently
exist in a pack file as well as the independent object directories.
All such extra objects are removed.
A pack is a collection of objects, individually compressed, with delta
compression applied, stored in a single file, with an associated index file.
Packs are used to reduce the load on mirror systems, backup engines, disk storage, etc.
Packs are used to reduce the load on mirror systems, backup engines,
disk storage, etc.
OPTIONS
-------
......
......@@ -15,15 +15,15 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads the tree information given by <tree-ish> into the index,
but does not actually *update* any of the files it "caches". (see:
git-checkout-index)
gitlink:git-checkout-index[1])
Optionally, it can merge a tree into the index, perform a
fast-forward (i.e. 2-way) merge, or a 3-way merge, with the -m
flag. When used with -m, the -u flag causes it to also update
fast-forward (i.e. 2-way) merge, or a 3-way merge, with the `-m`
flag. When used with `-m`, the `-u` flag causes it to also update
the files in the work tree with the result of the merge.
Trivial merges are done by "git-read-tree" itself. Only conflicting paths
will be in unmerged state when "git-read-tree" returns.
Trivial merges are done by `git-read-tree` itself. Only conflicting paths
will be in unmerged state when `git-read-tree` returns.
OPTIONS
-------
......@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ OPTIONS
Merging
-------
If '-m' is specified, "git-read-tree" can perform 3 kinds of
If `-m` is specified, `git-read-tree` can perform 3 kinds of
merge, a single tree merge if only 1 tree is given, a
fast-forward merge with 2 trees, or a 3-way merge if 3 trees are
provided.
......@@ -65,23 +65,23 @@ provided.
Single Tree Merge
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If only 1 tree is specified, git-read-tree operates as if the user did not
specify '-m', except that if the original index has an entry for a
specify `-m`, except that if the original index has an entry for a
given pathname, and the contents of the path matches with the tree
being read, the stat info from the index is used. (In other words, the
index's stat()s take precedence over the merged tree's).
That means that if you do a "git-read-tree -m <newtree>" followed by a
"git-checkout-index -f -u -a", the "git-checkout-index" only checks out
That means that if you do a `git-read-tree -m <newtree>` followed by a
`git-checkout-index -f -u -a`, the `git-checkout-index` only checks out
the stuff that really changed.
This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when "git-diff-files" is
run after git-read-tree.
This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when `git-diff-files` is
run after `git-read-tree`.
Two Tree Merge
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Typically, this is invoked as "git-read-tree -m $H $M", where $H
Typically, this is invoked as `git-read-tree -m $H $M`, where $H
is the head commit of the current repository, and $M is the head
of a foreign tree, which is simply ahead of $H (i.e. we are in a
fast forward situation).
......@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ the following:
2. The user wants to fast-forward to $M.
In this case, the "git-read-tree -m $H $M" command makes sure
In this case, the `git-read-tree -m $H $M` command makes sure
that no local change is lost as the result of this "merge".
Here are the "carry forward" rules:
......@@ -141,13 +141,13 @@ operating under the -u flag.
When this form of git-read-tree returns successfully, you can
see what "local changes" you made are carried forward by running
"git-diff-index --cached $M". Note that this does not
necessarily match "git-diff-index --cached $H" would have
`git-diff-index --cached $M`. Note that this does not
necessarily match `git-diff-index --cached $H` would have
produced before such a two tree merge. This is because of cases
18 and 19 --- if you already had the changes in $M (e.g. maybe
you picked it up via e-mail in a patch form), "git-diff-index
--cached $H" would have told you about the change before this
merge, but it would not show in "git-diff-index --cached $M"
you picked it up via e-mail in a patch form), `git-diff-index
--cached $H` would have told you about the change before this
merge, but it would not show in `git-diff-index --cached $M`
output after two-tree merge.
......@@ -156,18 +156,20 @@ output after two-tree merge.
Each "index" entry has two bits worth of "stage" state. stage 0 is the
normal one, and is the only one you'd see in any kind of normal use.
However, when you do "git-read-tree" with three trees, the "stage"
However, when you do `git-read-tree` with three trees, the "stage"
starts out at 1.
This means that you can do
git-read-tree -m <tree1> <tree2> <tree3>
----------------
$ git-read-tree -m <tree1> <tree2> <tree3>
----------------
and you will end up with an index with all of the <tree1> entries in
"stage1", all of the <tree2> entries in "stage2" and all of the
<tree3> entries in "stage3".
Furthermore, "git-read-tree" has special-case logic that says: if you see
Furthermore, `git-read-tree` has special-case logic that says: if you see
a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
"collapses" back to "stage0":
......@@ -180,7 +182,7 @@ a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
- stage 1 and stage 3 are the same and stage 2 is different take
stage 2 (some work has been done on stage 2)
The "git-write-tree" command refuses to write a nonsensical tree, and it
The `git-write-tree` command refuses to write a nonsensical tree, and it
will complain about unmerged entries if it sees a single entry that is not
stage 0.
......@@ -220,8 +222,8 @@ populated. Here is an outline of how the algorithm works:
matching "stage1" entry if it exists too. .. all the normal
trivial rules ..
You would normally use "git-merge-index" with supplied
"git-merge-one-file" to do this last step. The script
You would normally use `git-merge-index` with supplied
`git-merge-one-file` to do this last step. The script
does not touch the files in the work tree, and the entire merge
happens in the index file. In other words, there is no need to
worry about what is in the working directory, since it is never
......@@ -239,27 +241,33 @@ This is done to prevent you from losing your work-in-progress
changes. To illustrate, suppose you start from what has been
commited last to your repository:
$ JC=`git-rev-parse --verify "HEAD^0"`
$ git-checkout-index -f -u -a $JC
----------------
$ JC=`git-rev-parse --verify "HEAD^0"`
$ git-checkout-index -f -u -a $JC
----------------
You do random edits, without running git-update-index. And then
you notice that the tip of your "upstream" tree has advanced
since you pulled from him:
$ git-fetch rsync://.... linus
$ LT=`cat .git/MERGE_HEAD`
----------------
$ git-fetch rsync://.... linus
$ LT=`cat .git/MERGE_HEAD`
----------------
Your work tree is still based on your HEAD ($JC), but you have
some edits since. Three-way merge makes sure that you have not
added or modified index entries since $JC, and if you haven't,
then does the right thing. So with the following sequence:
$ git-read-tree -m -u `git-merge-base $JC $LT` $JC $LT
$ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file -a
$ echo "Merge with Linus" | \
git-commit-tree `git-write-tree` -p $JC -p $LT
----------------
$ git-read-tree -m -u `git-merge-base $JC $LT` $JC $LT
$ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file -a
$ echo "Merge with Linus" | \
git-commit-tree `git-write-tree` -p $JC -p $LT
----------------
what you would commit is a pure merge between $JC and LT without
what you would commit is a pure merge between $JC and $LT without
your work-in-progress changes, and your work tree would be
updated to the result of the merge.
......
......@@ -123,7 +123,9 @@ merging.
To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
$ git-update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
----------------
$ git-update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
----------------
'--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
database. This is useful for status-only repositories.
......@@ -138,7 +140,9 @@ Examples
--------
To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
----------------
$ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
----------------
Configuration
......@@ -146,12 +150,18 @@ Configuration
The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable. If
your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
unreliable, this should be set to 'false'. This causes the
command to ignore differences in file modes recorded in the
index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
executable bit. On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
need to use `git-update-index --chmod=`.
See Also
--------
gitlink:git-repo-config[1]
Author
------
Written by Linus Torvalds <[email protected]>
......
......@@ -14,19 +14,21 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Creates a tree object using the current index.
The index must be merged.
The index must be in a fully merged state.
Conceptually, "git-write-tree" sync()s the current index contents
Conceptually, `git-write-tree` sync()s the current index contents
into a set of tree files.
In order to have that match what is actually in your directory right
now, you need to have done a "git-update-index" phase before you did the
"git-write-tree".
now, you need to have done a `git-update-index` phase before you did the
`git-write-tree`.
OPTIONS
-------
--missing-ok::
Normally "git-write-tree" ensures that the objects referenced by the
directory exist in the object database. This option disables this check.
Normally `git-write-tree` ensures that the objects referenced by the
directory exist in the object database. This option disables this
check.
Author
------
......
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