git-stash.txt 9.14 KB
Newer Older
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
git-stash(1)
============

NAME
----
git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away

SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
11
'git stash' list [<options>]
Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
12 13 14
'git stash' show [<stash>]
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
15
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
16
'git stash' [save [--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]]
17
'git stash' clear
18
'git stash' create
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
19 20 21 22

DESCRIPTION
-----------

23
Use `git stash` when you want to record the current state of the
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
24 25 26 27 28
working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
working directory.  The command saves your local modifications away
and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.

The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
29 30 31 32
`git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
(potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
33 34
you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
you create one.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
35 36

The latest stash you created is stored in `$GIT_DIR/refs/stash`; older
37
stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
38 39
the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the most recently
created stash, `stash@\{1}` is the one before it, `stash@\{2.hours.ago}`
40
is also possible).
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
41 42 43 44

OPTIONS
-------

45
save [--patch] [--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
46

47
	Save your local modifications to a new 'stash', and run `git reset
48 49 50 51 52
	--hard` to revert them.  The <message> part is optional and gives
	the description along with the stashed state.  For quickly making
	a snapshot, you can omit _both_ "save" and <message>, but giving
	only <message> does not trigger this action to prevent a misspelled
	subcommand from making an unwanted stash.
53 54 55
+
If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
index are left intact.
56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
+
With `--patch`, you can interactively select hunks from in the diff
between HEAD and the working tree to be stashed.  The stash entry is
constructed such that its index state is the same as the index state
of your repository, and its worktree contains only the changes you
selected interactively.  The selected changes are then rolled back
from your worktree.
+
The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`.  You can use
`--no-keep-index` to override this.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
66

67
list [<options>]::
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
68 69

	List the stashes that you currently have.  Each 'stash' is listed
70
	with its name (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the latest stash, `stash@\{1}` is
71
	the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
72 73 74 75
	stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
	based on.
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
76 77
stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
78
----------------------------------------------------------------
79
+
80
The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
81
command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
82 83 84

show [<stash>]::

85
	Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
86 87
	stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
	shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
88
	it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
89
	-p stash@\{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
90

Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
91
pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
92

93 94 95 96
	Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
	on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
	operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
	match the index.
97
+
98 99 100 101
Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
removed from the stash list. You need to resolve the conflicts by hand
and call `git stash drop` manually afterwards.
+
102 103 104 105
If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
longer apply the changes as they were originally).
106 107 108
+
When no `<stash>` is given, `stash@\{0}` is assumed.

Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
109
apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
110 111

	Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
112

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126
branch <branchname> [<stash>]::

	Creates and checks out a new branch named `<branchname>` starting from
	the commit at which the `<stash>` was originally created, applies the
	changes recorded in `<stash>` to the new working tree and index, then
	drops the `<stash>` if that completes successfully. When no `<stash>`
	is given, applies the latest one.
+
This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
the stash is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the time
`git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state with
no conflicts.

しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
127
clear::
128
	Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
129 130
	be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
	'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
131

Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
132
drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
133 134 135 136

	Remove a single stashed state from the stash list. When no `<stash>`
	is given, it removes the latest one. i.e. `stash@\{0}`

137 138 139 140 141
create::

	Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
	object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.

しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153

DISCUSSION
----------

A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
the stash was created.  The tree of the second parent records the
state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
the `HEAD` commit.  The ancestry graph looks like this:

            .----W
           /    /
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
154
     -----H----I
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166

where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
tree.


EXAMPLES
--------

Pulling into a dirty tree::

When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
167 168
upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
doing.  When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
169 170 171 172
the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
+
However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
173
changes.  In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
174 175 176 177
perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
$ git pull
178
 ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
179 180 181
file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
$ git stash
$ git pull
182
$ git stash pop
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
183 184 185 186 187
----------------------------------------------------------------

Interrupted workflow::

When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
188
demands that you fix something immediately.  Traditionally, you would
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
189
make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
190
return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
191 192
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
193
# ... hack hack hack ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
194 195 196 197 198 199 200
$ git checkout -b my_wip
$ git commit -a -m "WIP"
$ git checkout master
$ edit emergency fix
$ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
$ git checkout my_wip
$ git reset --soft HEAD^
201
# ... continue hacking ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
202 203
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
204
You can use 'git stash' to simplify the above, like this:
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
205 206
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
207
# ... hack hack hack ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
208 209 210
$ git stash
$ edit emergency fix
$ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
211
$ git stash pop
212
# ... continue hacking ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
213 214
----------------------------------------------------------------

215 216 217 218 219 220 221
Testing partial commits::

You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
each change before committing:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
222
# ... hack hack hack ...
223 224 225
$ git add --patch foo            # add just first part to the index
$ git stash save --keep-index    # save all other changes to the stash
$ edit/build/test first part
226
$ git commit -m 'First part'     # commit fully tested change
227
$ git stash pop                  # prepare to work on all other changes
228
# ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
229 230
$ edit/build/test remaining parts
$ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
231 232
----------------------------------------------------------------

233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246
Recovering stashes that were cleared/dropped erroneously::

If you mistakenly drop or clear stashes, they cannot be recovered
through the normal safety mechanisms.  However, you can try the
following incantation to get a list of stashes that are still in your
repository, but not reachable any more:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
git fsck --unreachable |
grep commit | cut -d\  -f3 |
xargs git log --merges --no-walk --grep=WIP
----------------------------------------------------------------


しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
247 248
SEE ALSO
--------
249 250 251 252
linkgit:git-checkout[1],
linkgit:git-commit[1],
linkgit:git-reflog[1],
linkgit:git-reset[1]
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
253 254 255 256 257 258 259

AUTHOR
------
Written by Nanako Shiraishi <nanako3@bluebottle.com>

GIT
---
260
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite