git-update-index.txt 10.7 KB
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git-update-index(1)
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===================

NAME
----
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git-update-index - Register file contents in the working tree to the index
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SYNOPSIS
--------
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[verse]
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'git-update-index'
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	     [--add] [--remove | --force-remove] [--replace]
	     [--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
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	     [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]\*
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	     [--chmod=(+|-)x]
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	     [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
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	     [--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
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	     [--info-only] [--index-info]
	     [-z] [--stdin]
	     [--verbose]
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	     [--] [<file>]\*

DESCRIPTION
-----------
Modifies the index or directory cache. Each file mentioned is updated
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into the index and any 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state is
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cleared.

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See also gitlink:git-add[1] for a more user-friendly way to do some of
the most common operations on the index.

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The way "git-update-index" handles files it is told about can be modified
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using the various options:

OPTIONS
-------
--add::
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	If a specified file isn't in the index already then it's
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	added.
	Default behaviour is to ignore new files.

--remove::
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	If a specified file is in the index but is missing then it's
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	removed.
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	Default behavior is to ignore removed file.
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--refresh::
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	Looks at the current index and checks to see if merges or
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	updates are needed by checking stat() information.

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-q::
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        Quiet.  If --refresh finds that the index needs an update, the
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        default behavior is to error out.  This option makes
        git-update-index continue anyway.

--unmerged::
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        If --refresh finds unmerged changes in the index, the default
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        behavior is to error out.  This option makes git-update-index 
        continue anyway.

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--ignore-missing::
	Ignores missing files during a --refresh

--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>::
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	Directly insert the specified info into the index.
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--index-info::
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        Read index information from stdin.
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--chmod=(+|-)x::
        Set the execute permissions on the updated files.        

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--assume-unchanged, --no-assume-unchanged::
	When these flags are specified, the object name recorded
	for the paths are not updated.  Instead, these options
	sets and unsets the "assume unchanged" bit for the
	paths.  When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
	checking the working tree files for possible
	modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
	tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
	sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
	filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
	(e.g. cifs).

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--again, -g::
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	Runs `git-update-index` itself on the paths whose index
	entries are different from those from the `HEAD` commit.

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--unresolve::
	Restores the 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state of a
	file during a merge if it was cleared by accident.

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--info-only::
	Do not create objects in the object database for all
	<file> arguments that follow this flag; just insert
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	their object IDs into the index.
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--force-remove::
	Remove the file from the index even when the working directory
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	still has such a file. (Implies --remove.)
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--replace::
	By default, when a file `path` exists in the index,
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	git-update-index refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
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	Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
	cannot be added.  With --replace flag, existing entries
	that conflicts with the entry being added are
	automatically removed with warning messages.

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--stdin::
	Instead of taking list of paths from the command line,
	read list of paths from the standard input.  Paths are
	separated by LF (i.e. one path per line) by default.

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--verbose::
        Report what is being added and removed from index.

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-z::
	Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
	NUL character instead of LF.

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\--::
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	Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

<file>::
	Files to act on.
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	Note that files beginning with '.' are discarded. This includes
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	`./file` and `dir/./file`. If you don't want this, then use	
	cleaner names.
	The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'

Using --refresh
---------------
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'--refresh' does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
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up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
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"re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
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the stat entry is out of date.

For example, you'd want to do this after doing a "git-read-tree", to link
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up the stat index details with the proper files.
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Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
--------------------------------
'--cacheinfo' is used to register a file that is not in the
current working directory.  This is useful for minimum-checkout
merging.

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To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
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----------------
$ git-update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
----------------
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'--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
database.  This is useful for status-only repositories.
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Both '--cacheinfo' and '--info-only' behave similarly: the index is updated
but the object database isn't.  '--cacheinfo' is useful when the object is
in the database but the file isn't available locally.  '--info-only' is
useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
object database.

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Using --index-info
------------------

`--index-info` is a more powerful mechanism that lets you feed
multiple entry definitions from the standard input, and designed
specifically for scripts.  It can take inputs of three formats:

    . mode         SP sha1          TAB path
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The first format is what "git-apply --index-info"
reports, and used to reconstruct a partial tree
that is used for phony merge base tree when falling
back on 3-way merge.

    . mode SP type SP sha1          TAB path
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The second format is to stuff git-ls-tree output
into the index file.

    . mode         SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
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This format is to put higher order stages into the
index file and matches git-ls-files --stage output.

To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
then feeding necessary input lines in the third format.

For example, starting with this index:

------------
$ git ls-files -s
100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 0       frotz
------------

you can feed the following input to `--index-info`:

------------
$ git update-index --index-info
0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000	frotz
100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1	frotz
100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2	frotz
------------

The first line of the input feeds 0 as the mode to remove the
path; the SHA1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
Then the second and third line feeds stage 1 and stage 2 entries
for that path.  After the above, we would end up with this:

------------
$ git ls-files -s
100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1	frotz
100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2	frotz
------------


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Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
------------------------------
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Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
the index file.  Unfortunately, some filesystems have
inefficient `lstat(2)`.  If your filesystem is one of them, you
can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
cause git not to do this check.  Note that setting this bit on a
path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
assume it has *not* changed.  When you make changes to working
tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
"assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.

In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
option.  To unset, use `--no-assume-unchanged`.

The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable.  When
this is true, paths updated with `git-update-index paths...` and
paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
working tree (e.g. `git-apply --index`, `git-checkout-index -u`,
and `git-read-tree -u`) are automatically marked as "assume
unchanged".  Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
`git-update-index --refresh` finds the working tree file matches
the index (use `git-update-index --really-refresh` if you want
to mark them as "assume unchanged").


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Examples
--------
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To update and refresh only the files already checked out:

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----------------
$ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
----------------
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On an inefficient filesystem with `core.ignorestat` set::
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------------
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$ git update-index --really-refresh              <1>
$ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c   <2>
$ git diff --name-only                           <3>
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$ edit foo.c
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$ git diff --name-only                           <4>
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M foo.c
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$ git update-index foo.c                         <5>
$ git diff --name-only                           <6>
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$ edit foo.c
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$ git diff --name-only                           <7>
$ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c   <8>
$ git diff --name-only                           <9>
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M foo.c
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------------
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<1> forces lstat(2) to set "assume unchanged" bits for paths that match index.
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<2> mark the path to be edited.
<3> this does lstat(2) and finds index matches the path.
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<4> this does lstat(2) and finds index does *not* match the path.
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<5> registering the new version to index sets "assume unchanged" bit.
<6> and it is assumed unchanged.
<7> even after you edit it.
<8> you can tell about the change after the fact.
<9> now it checks with lstat(2) and finds it has been changed.

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Configuration
-------------

The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable.  If
your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
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unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see gitlink:git-config[1]).
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This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
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executable bit.   On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
need to use `git-update-index --chmod=`.

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Quite similarly, if `core.symlinks` configuration variable is set
to 'false' (see gitlink:git-config[1]), symbolic links are checked out
as plain files, and this command does not modify a recorded file mode
from symbolic link to regular file.

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The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable.  See
'Using "assume unchanged" bit' section above.

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See Also
--------
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gitlink:git-config[1],
gitlink:git-add[1]
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Author
------
Written by Linus Torvalds <[email protected]>

Documentation
--------------
Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <[email protected]>.

GIT
---
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Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
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