git-stash.txt 10.8 KB
Newer Older
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
git-stash(1)
============

NAME
----
git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away

SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
11
'git stash' list [<options>]
Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
12 13 14
'git stash' show [<stash>]
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
15
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
16
'git stash' [save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
17
	     [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]]
Thomas Gummerer's avatar
Thomas Gummerer committed
18 19
'git stash' push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
	     [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]]
20
'git stash' clear
21
'git stash' create [<message>]
22
'git stash' store [-m|--message <message>] [-q|--quiet] <commit>
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
23 24 25 26

DESCRIPTION
-----------

27
Use `git stash` when you want to record the current state of the
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
28 29 30 31 32
working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
working directory.  The command saves your local modifications away
and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.

The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
33 34 35 36
`git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
(potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
37 38
you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
you create one.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
39

40
The latest stash you created is stored in `refs/stash`; older
41
stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
42 43
the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `[email protected]{0}` is the most recently
created stash, `[email protected]{1}` is the one before it, `[email protected]{2.hours.ago}`
44 45
is also possible). Stashes may also be referenced by specifying just the
stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `[email protected]{n}`).
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
46 47 48 49

OPTIONS
-------

50
save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
Thomas Gummerer's avatar
Thomas Gummerer committed
51
push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [-m|--message <message>]::
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
52

53 54 55
	Save your local modifications to a new 'stash' and roll them
	back to HEAD (in the working tree and in the index).
	The <message> part is optional and gives
56 57 58 59
	the description along with the stashed state.  For quickly making
	a snapshot, you can omit _both_ "save" and <message>, but giving
	only <message> does not trigger this action to prevent a misspelled
	subcommand from making an unwanted stash.
60 61 62
+
If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
index are left intact.
63
+
64 65 66 67 68
If the `--include-untracked` option is used, all untracked files are also
stashed and then cleaned up with `git clean`, leaving the working directory
in a very clean state. If the `--all` option is used instead then the
ignored files are stashed and cleaned in addition to the untracked files.
+
69
With `--patch`, you can interactively select hunks from the diff
70 71 72 73
between HEAD and the working tree to be stashed.  The stash entry is
constructed such that its index state is the same as the index state
of your repository, and its worktree contains only the changes you
selected interactively.  The selected changes are then rolled back
74
from your worktree. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
75
linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
76 77 78
+
The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`.  You can use
`--no-keep-index` to override this.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
79

80
list [<options>]::
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
81 82

	List the stashes that you currently have.  Each 'stash' is listed
83
	with its name (e.g. `[email protected]{0}` is the latest stash, `[email protected]{1}` is
84
	the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
85 86 87 88
	stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
	based on.
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
89 90
[email protected]{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
[email protected]{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
91
----------------------------------------------------------------
92
+
93
The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
94
command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
95 96 97

show [<stash>]::

98
	Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
99 100
	stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
	shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
101
	it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
102
	-p [email protected]{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
103 104
	You can use stash.showStat and/or stash.showPatch config variables
	to change the default behavior.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
105

Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
106
pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
107

108 109 110 111
	Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
	on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
	operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
	match the index.
112
+
113 114 115 116
Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
removed from the stash list. You need to resolve the conflicts by hand
and call `git stash drop` manually afterwards.
+
117 118 119 120
If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
longer apply the changes as they were originally).
121
+
122 123
When no `<stash>` is given, `[email protected]{0}` is assumed, otherwise `<stash>` must
be a reference of the form `[email protected]{<revision>}`.
124

Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
125
apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
126

127 128 129
	Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
	`<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
	`stash save` or `stash create`.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
130

131 132 133 134
branch <branchname> [<stash>]::

	Creates and checks out a new branch named `<branchname>` starting from
	the commit at which the `<stash>` was originally created, applies the
135 136 137
	changes recorded in `<stash>` to the new working tree and index.
	If that succeeds, and `<stash>` is a reference of the form
	`[email protected]{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145
	is given, applies the latest one.
+
This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
the stash is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the time
`git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state with
no conflicts.

しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
146
clear::
147
	Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
148 149
	be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
	'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
150

Stephen Boyd's avatar
Stephen Boyd committed
151
drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
152 153

	Remove a single stashed state from the stash list. When no `<stash>`
154
	is given, it removes the latest one. i.e. `[email protected]{0}`, otherwise
155
	`<stash>` must be a valid stash log reference of the form
156
	`[email protected]{<revision>}`.
157

158 159 160 161
create::

	Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
	object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
162 163
	This is intended to be useful for scripts.  It is probably not
	the command you want to use; see "save" above.
164

165 166 167 168 169 170
store::

	Store a given stash created via 'git stash create' (which is a
	dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating the stash
	reflog.  This is intended to be useful for scripts.  It is
	probably not the command you want to use; see "save" above.
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182

DISCUSSION
----------

A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
the stash was created.  The tree of the second parent records the
state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
the `HEAD` commit.  The ancestry graph looks like this:

            .----W
           /    /
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
183
     -----H----I
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195

where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
tree.


EXAMPLES
--------

Pulling into a dirty tree::

When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
196 197
upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
doing.  When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
198 199 200 201
the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
+
However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
202
changes.  In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
203 204 205 206
perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
$ git pull
207
 ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
208 209 210
file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
$ git stash
$ git pull
211
$ git stash pop
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
212 213 214 215 216
----------------------------------------------------------------

Interrupted workflow::

When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
217
demands that you fix something immediately.  Traditionally, you would
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
218
make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
219
return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
220 221
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
222
# ... hack hack hack ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
223 224 225 226 227 228 229
$ git checkout -b my_wip
$ git commit -a -m "WIP"
$ git checkout master
$ edit emergency fix
$ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
$ git checkout my_wip
$ git reset --soft HEAD^
230
# ... continue hacking ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
231 232
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
233
You can use 'git stash' to simplify the above, like this:
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
234 235
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
236
# ... hack hack hack ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
237 238 239
$ git stash
$ edit emergency fix
$ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
240
$ git stash pop
241
# ... continue hacking ...
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
242 243
----------------------------------------------------------------

244 245 246 247 248 249 250
Testing partial commits::

You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
each change before committing:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
251
# ... hack hack hack ...
252 253 254
$ git add --patch foo            # add just first part to the index
$ git stash save --keep-index    # save all other changes to the stash
$ edit/build/test first part
255
$ git commit -m 'First part'     # commit fully tested change
256
$ git stash pop                  # prepare to work on all other changes
257
# ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
258 259
$ edit/build/test remaining parts
$ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
260 261
----------------------------------------------------------------

262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275
Recovering stashes that were cleared/dropped erroneously::

If you mistakenly drop or clear stashes, they cannot be recovered
through the normal safety mechanisms.  However, you can try the
following incantation to get a list of stashes that are still in your
repository, but not reachable any more:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
git fsck --unreachable |
grep commit | cut -d\  -f3 |
xargs git log --merges --no-walk --grep=WIP
----------------------------------------------------------------


しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
276 277
SEE ALSO
--------
278 279 280 281
linkgit:git-checkout[1],
linkgit:git-commit[1],
linkgit:git-reflog[1],
linkgit:git-reset[1]
しらいしななこ's avatar
しらいしななこ committed
282 283 284

GIT
---
285
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite