git-update-index.txt 12.8 KB
Newer Older
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
2 3 4 5

git-update-index - Register file contents in the working tree to the index
7 8 9 10

'git update-index'
13 14
	     [--add] [--remove | --force-remove] [--replace]
	     [--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
	     [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]*
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
	     [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
	     [--skip-worktree | --no-skip-worktree]
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
	     [--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
21 22 23
	     [--info-only] [--index-info]
	     [-z] [--stdin]
	     [--] [<file>]*
25 26 27 28

Modifies the index or directory cache. Each file mentioned is updated
into the index and any 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state is
30 31

See also linkgit:git-add[1] for a more user-friendly way to do some of
33 34
the most common operations on the index.

The way 'git update-index' handles files it is told about can be modified
36 37 38 39 40
using the various options:

	If a specified file isn't in the index already then it's
42 43 44 45
	Default behaviour is to ignore new files.

	If a specified file is in the index but is missing then it's
	Default behavior is to ignore removed file.
49 50

	Looks at the current index and checks to see if merges or
52 53
	updates are needed by checking stat() information.

        Quiet.  If --refresh finds that the index needs an update, the
        default behavior is to error out.  This option makes
	'git update-index' continue anyway.

60 61 62
	Do not try to update submodules.  This option is only respected
	when passed before --refresh.

        If --refresh finds unmerged changes in the index, the default
	behavior is to error out.  This option makes 'git update-index'
66 67
        continue anyway.

68 69 70 71
	Ignores missing files during a --refresh

--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>::
	Directly insert the specified info into the index.
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed

Nikolai Weibull's avatar
Nikolai Weibull committed
        Read index information from stdin.
76 77

Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
        Set the execute permissions on the updated files.

80 81
	When these flags are specified, the object names recorded
	for the paths are not updated.  Instead, these options
	set and unset the "assume unchanged" bit for the
85 86 87 88 89 90 91
	paths.  When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
	checking the working tree files for possible
	modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
	tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
	sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
	filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
	(e.g. cifs).
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
This option can be also used as a coarse file-level mechanism
to ignore uncommitted changes in tracked files (akin to what
`.gitignore` does for untracked files).
Git will fail (gracefully) in case it needs to modify this file
in the index e.g. when merging in a commit;
thus, in case the assumed-untracked file is changed upstream,
you will need to handle the situation manually.

101 102 103 104
	Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
	without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.

105 106 107 108 109 110 111
	When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
	for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
	set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
	section "Skip-worktree bit" below for more information.

112 113
	Runs 'git update-index' itself on the paths whose index
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
115 116
	entries are different from those from the `HEAD` commit.

117 118 119 120
	Restores the 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state of a
	file during a merge if it was cleared by accident.

121 122 123
	Do not create objects in the object database for all
	<file> arguments that follow this flag; just insert
	their object IDs into the index.

126 127
	Remove the file from the index even when the working directory
	still has such a file. (Implies --remove.)
129 130 131

	By default, when a file `path` exists in the index,
	'git update-index' refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
133 134
	Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
	cannot be added.  With --replace flag, existing entries
	that conflict with the entry being added are
136 137
	automatically removed with warning messages.

138 139 140 141 142
	Instead of taking list of paths from the command line,
	read list of paths from the standard input.  Paths are
	separated by LF (i.e. one path per line) by default.

143 144 145
        Report what is being added and removed from index.

146 147 148 149
	Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
	NUL character instead of LF.

151 152 153 154
	Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

	Files to act on.
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
	Note that files beginning with '.' are discarded. This includes
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
	`./file` and `dir/./file`. If you don't want this, then use
157 158 159 160 161
	cleaner names.
	The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'

Using --refresh
'--refresh' does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
164 165
"re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
166 167
the stat entry is out of date.

For example, you'd want to do this after doing a 'git read-tree', to link
up the stat index details with the proper files.

171 172 173 174 175 176
Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
'--cacheinfo' is used to register a file that is not in the
current working directory.  This is useful for minimum-checkout

To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:

$ git update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path

183 184
'--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
database.  This is useful for status-only repositories.

186 187 188 189 190 191
Both '--cacheinfo' and '--info-only' behave similarly: the index is updated
but the object database isn't.  '--cacheinfo' is useful when the object is
in the database but the file isn't available locally.  '--info-only' is
useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
object database.

192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

Using --index-info

`--index-info` is a more powerful mechanism that lets you feed
multiple entry definitions from the standard input, and designed
specifically for scripts.  It can take inputs of three formats:

    . mode         SP sha1          TAB path
The first format is what "git-apply --index-info"
reports, and used to reconstruct a partial tree
that is used for phony merge base tree when falling
back on 3-way merge.

    . mode SP type SP sha1          TAB path
The second format is to stuff 'git ls-tree' output
210 211 212 213 214
into the index file.

    . mode         SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
This format is to put higher order stages into the
index file and matches 'git ls-files --stage' output.
216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248

To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
then feeding necessary input lines in the third format.

For example, starting with this index:

$ git ls-files -s
100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 0       frotz

you can feed the following input to `--index-info`:

$ git update-index --index-info
0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000	frotz
100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1	frotz
100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2	frotz

The first line of the input feeds 0 as the mode to remove the
path; the SHA1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
Then the second and third line feeds stage 1 and stage 2 entries
for that path.  After the above, we would end up with this:

$ git ls-files -s
100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1	frotz
100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2	frotz

249 250
Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269

Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
the index file.  Unfortunately, some filesystems have
inefficient `lstat(2)`.  If your filesystem is one of them, you
can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
cause git not to do this check.  Note that setting this bit on a
path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
assume it has *not* changed.  When you make changes to working
tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
"assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.

In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
option.  To unset, use `--no-assume-unchanged`.

The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable.  When
this is true, paths updated with `git update-index paths...` and
paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
272 273
working tree (e.g. 'git apply --index', 'git checkout-index -u',
and 'git read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
unchanged".  Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
275 276
`git update-index --refresh` finds the working tree file matches
the index (use `git update-index --really-refresh` if you want
277 278 279
to mark them as "assume unchanged").

280 281
282 283
To update and refresh only the files already checked out:

$ git checkout-index -n -f -a && git update-index --ignore-missing --refresh

288 289
On an inefficient filesystem with `core.ignorestat` set::
291 292 293
$ git update-index --really-refresh              <1>
$ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c   <2>
$ git diff --name-only                           <3>
$ edit foo.c
$ git diff --name-only                           <4>
M foo.c
297 298
$ git update-index foo.c                         <5>
$ git diff --name-only                           <6>
$ edit foo.c
300 301 302
$ git diff --name-only                           <7>
$ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c   <8>
$ git diff --name-only                           <9>
M foo.c
304 305 306
<1> forces lstat(2) to set "assume unchanged" bits for paths that match index.
307 308
<2> mark the path to be edited.
<3> this does lstat(2) and finds index matches the path.
<4> this does lstat(2) and finds index does *not* match the path.
310 311 312 313 314 315
<5> registering the new version to index sets "assume unchanged" bit.
<6> and it is assumed unchanged.
<7> even after you edit it.
<8> you can tell about the change after the fact.
<9> now it checks with lstat(2) and finds it has been changed.


317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337
Skip-worktree bit

Skip-worktree bit can be defined in one (long) sentence: When reading
an entry, if it is marked as skip-worktree, then Git pretends its
working directory version is up to date and read the index version

To elaborate, "reading" means checking for file existence, reading
file attributes or file content. The working directory version may be
present or absent. If present, its content may match against the index
version or not. Writing is not affected by this bit, content safety
is still first priority. Note that Git _can_ update working directory
file, that is marked skip-worktree, if it is safe to do so (i.e.
working directory version matches index version)

Although this bit looks similar to assume-unchanged bit, its goal is
different from assume-unchanged bit's. Skip-worktree also takes
precedence over assume-unchanged bit when both are set.

Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
338 339 340 341

The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable.  If
your repository is on a filesystem whose executable bits are
unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
344 345
This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed
executable bit.   On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
need to use 'git update-index --chmod='.
Junio C Hamano's avatar
Junio C Hamano committed

Quite similarly, if `core.symlinks` configuration variable is set
to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]), symbolic links are checked out
351 352 353
as plain files, and this command does not modify a recorded file mode
from symbolic link to regular file.

354 355 356
The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable.  See
'Using "assume unchanged" bit' section above.

357 358 359 360 361
The command also looks at `core.trustctime` configuration variable.
It can be useful when the inode change time is regularly modified by
something outside Git (file system crawlers and backup systems use
ctime for marking files processed) (see linkgit:git-config[1]).


365 366
367 368

369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378
Written by Linus Torvalds <[email protected]>

Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <[email protected]>.

Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite