Commit 75711778 authored by Clement Lefebvre's avatar Clement Lefebvre

Review docs

parent e92e6cd2
......@@ -19,3 +19,5 @@ Resources:
* https://thomas-cokelaer.info/tutorials/sphinx/rest_syntax.html
* http://www.sphinx-doc.org/en/stable/markup/inline.html
* http://www.writethedocs.org/guide/
* https://developers.google.com/style/highlights
Boot Linux Mint
===============
Now that you have Linux Mint on a USB stick (or DVD) let's boot the computer from it.
Now that you have Linux Mint on a USB stick (or DVD) boot the computer from it.
1. Insert your USB stick (or DVD) into the computer.
2. Restart the computer
2. Restart the computer.
3. Before your computer boots your current operating system (Windows, Mac, Linux) you should see your `BIOS <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS>`_ loading screen. Check the screen or your computer's documentation to know which key to press and instruct your computer to boot on USB (or DVD).
......
......@@ -52,14 +52,12 @@ If you still cannot boot try one of the following solutions:
* Try ``nouveau.noaccel=1`` instead of ``nomodeset``.
* After the installation, use :menuselection:`Advanced Options --> Recovery mode` from the boot menu and choose ``resume``.
Booting an older kernel
-----------------------
Install an older release
------------------------
If your computer has issues with the kernel used by a particular Linux Mint release, an easy option is to install a previous release from the same Linux Mint series instead.
If your computer has compatibility issues with the latest Linux Mint release, install a previous release from the same Linux Mint series.
For instance, Linux Mint 18.3 comes with a 4.10 kernel but Linux Mint 18 comes with a 4.4 kernel.
It is very easy to upgrade Linux Mint to newer releases, so if for some reasons your hardware doesn't agree with the newest kernel, download and install the first release in the series (i.e. Linux Mint 18 instead of 18.3) and upgrade to the latest release post-installation.
For instance, if you can't install Linux Mint 18.3 (which comes with a 4.10 kernel), install Linux Mint 18 (which comes with a 4.4 kernel) and upgrade to 18.3.
.. note::
The first release in each series uses an LTS (Long Term Support) kernel. Upgrading from this release to the latest one in the series does not change the Linux kernel.
The first release in each series uses an LTS (Long Term Support) kernel. Upgrading from this release to the latest one in the series does not change your kernel.
Create the bootable media
=========================
The easiest way to install Linux Mint is with a bootable USB stick.
The easiest way to install Linux Mint is with a USB stick.
Alternatively, if you do not have a spare USB stick or if your computer cannot boot from USB, you can create a bootable DVD.
If you cannot boot from USB, you can use a blank DVD.
How to make a bootable USB stick
--------------------------------
Using Linux Mint
````````````````
In Linux Mint
`````````````
In Linux Mint, right-click the ISO file and select :menuselection:`Make Bootable USB Stick`, or launch the :menuselection:`USB Image Writer` from the application menu.
Right-click the ISO file and select :menuselection:`Make Bootable USB Stick`, or launch :menuselection:`Menu -> Accessories -> USB Image Writer`.
.. figure:: images/mintstick.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
Using the USB Image Writer in Linux Mint
Select your USB device and press the :guilabel:`Write` button.
Select your USB device and click :guilabel:`Write`.
Using Windows, Mac, or other Linux distributions
In Windows, Mac OS, or other Linux distributions
````````````````````````````````````````````````
Download `Etcher <https://etcher.io/>`_, install it and run it.
......@@ -32,11 +30,11 @@ Download `Etcher <https://etcher.io/>`_, install it and run it.
Using Etcher
Press the :guilabel:`Select image` button and select your ISO file.
Click :guilabel:`Select image` and select your ISO file.
Press the :guilabel:`Select drive` button and select your USB stick.
Click :guilabel:`Select drive` and select your USB stick.
Press the :guilabel:`Flash!` button.
Click :guilabel:`Flash!`.
How to make a bootable DVD
......@@ -44,22 +42,22 @@ How to make a bootable DVD
Optical discs are slow and burning to disc is prone to errors.
.. warning::
Make sure to burn at the lowest possible speed to prevent issues.
.. note::
To prevent issues, burn at the lowest possible speed.
.. warning::
Make sure to burn the ISO onto the DVD, and not into the DVD. When finished, you shouldn't obtain a DVD which contains a single .iso file, but a DVD which contains all the files present within the ISO image (``boot/``, ``casper/``, etc..).
Burn the content of the ISO onto the DVD, not the ISO file itself. When finished, your DVD should contain directories such as ``boot`` and ``casper``, it shouldn't be an empty DVD containing an .iso file.
Using Linux
```````````
In Linux, install and use ``xfburn``.
In Linux
````````
Install and use ``xfburn``.
Using Windows
`````````````
In Windows, right-click the ISO file and select :menuselection:`Burn disk image`.
In Windows
``````````
Right-click the ISO file and select :menuselection:`Burn disk image`.
Select :menuselection:`Verify disc after burning` to make sure the ISO was burned without any errors.
To make sure the ISO was burned without any errors, select :menuselection:`Verify disc after burning`.
Using Mac
In Mac OS
`````````
In Mac OS, right-click the ISO file and select :menuselection:`Burn Disk Image to Disc`.
Right-click the ISO file and select :menuselection:`Burn Disk Image to Disc`.
Choose the right edition
========================
You can download Linux Mint from https://linuxmint.com/download.php.
You can download Linux Mint from the `Linux Mint website <https://linuxmint.com/download.php>`_.
Read below to help you choose which edition and architecture are right for you.
Read below to choose which edition and architecture are right for you.
Cinnamon, MATE or Xfce?
-----------------------
......@@ -43,28 +43,26 @@ Xfce is a lightweight desktop environment. It doesn't support as many features a
Xfce
Of course, all three desktops are great and Linux Mint is extremely proud of each edition. Although there are more features and better support in some editions than others, and some do run faster and use less resources than others, they're all great alternatives and choosing the right edition for you is largely a matter of taste.
Of course, all three desktops are great and Linux Mint is extremely proud of each edition. Although there are more features and better support in some editions than others, and some do run faster and use less resources than others, they're all great alternatives and choosing the right edition is largely a matter of taste.
Other than their features and performance, Cinnamon, MATE and Xfce also represent three different desktop environments, with different menus, different panels and configuration tools. The right one for you is the one where you feel at home.
If you are unsure which desktop to choose, we recommend you start with the Cinnamon edition. Try them all eventually when you have the time. All three of them have their own audience within the Linux Mint community and they're all very popular.
If you are unsure which desktop to choose start with the Cinnamon edition. Try them all eventually when you have the time. All three of them have their own audience within the Linux Mint community and they're all very popular.
32-bit or 64-bit?
-----------------
We encourage everyone to run Linux Mint in 64-bit.
64-bit is recommended.
The 32-bit ISO images are provided for compatibility with older computers. 32-bit processors are extremely rare nowadays and most computers are able to run in 64-bit. If your computer was manufactured after 2007, you probably have a 64-bit processor.
If you have an old computer and you are unsure whether or not it can run in 64-bit, please check the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86#Chronology
If you have an old computer and you are unsure whether or not it can run in 64-bit, read `X86 Chronology <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86#Chronology>`_.
.. tip::
You can try to boot Linux Mint 64-bit on your computer. If it isn't compatible, nothing bad will happen. You will simply get an error message.
You can try to boot Linux Mint 64-bit on your computer. If it isn't compatible, nothing bad will happen. You will just get an error message.
.. note::
Because 64-bit processors can run both in 64-bit and in 32-bit, it is possible to run Linux Mint 32-bit on a 64-bit processor. However this is not recommended, as it will limit the amount of detected RAM to a maximum of 4GB and it can have a negative impact on the performance of your operating system.
Don't run Linux Mint 32-bit on a 64-bit processor. Although it works, it limits the amount of detected RAM to a maximum of 4GB and it can have a negative impact on the performance of the operating system.
......@@ -6,8 +6,6 @@ Some multimedia content requires additional codecs to be installed.
.. note::
If you were online when installing Linux Mint and you ticked the option to install these codecs, they are already installed.
To install these codecs:
1. Launch :menuselection:`Menu --> Sound & Video --> Install Multimedia Codecs`.
.. figure:: images/mint-meta-codecs.png
......
......@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ Hardware drivers
One of the first things to do after installing Linux Mint is to check for available hardware drivers.
1. Launch the driver manager by opening :menuselection:`Menu --> Administration --> Driver Manager`.
1. Launch :menuselection:`Menu --> Administration --> Driver Manager`.
.. figure:: images/mintdrivers.png
:width: 500px
......@@ -16,8 +16,8 @@ One of the first things to do after installing Linux Mint is to check for availa
:width: 500px
:align: center
In that case, insert your bootable Linux Mint USB stick (or DVD), wait for it to be mounted, and click :guilabel:`OK`.
Insert your bootable Linux Mint USB stick (or DVD), wait for it to be mounted, and click :guilabel:`OK`.
2. Tick the appropriate checkboxes to select the available drivers and click :guilabel:`Apply Changes`.
3. Reboot the computer.
\ No newline at end of file
3. Restart the computer.
\ No newline at end of file
......@@ -11,10 +11,10 @@ If after installing Linux Mint in EFI mode, you are unable to boot due to a ``Se
:align: center
* Restart the installation:
* Make sure to connect to the Internet before the installation
* **Do not** tick the ``Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware, Flash, MP3 and other media`` checkbox.
* Connect to the Internet before the installation
* **Do not** select ``Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware, Flash, MP3 and other media``.
* Go in the ``BIOS`` settings and disable ``Secureboot``.
* Disable ``SecureBoot`` in the ``BIOS`` settings of your computer.
EFI boot order
--------------
......@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ To modify the boot order:
2. Open a terminal.
3. Type ``sudo efibootmgr`` to see the boot order.
3. Type ``sudo efibootmgr``.
This command lists the available boot options and the boot order.
......@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ This command lists the available boot options and the boot order.
:width: 500px
:align: center
In the example above, we can see three boot options:
In the screenshot above, there are three boot options:
* ``ubuntu`` at ``0000``
* ``linuxmint`` at ``0001``
......@@ -47,15 +47,15 @@ The boot order is ``0081``. This indicates that the computer only tries to boot
For technical reasons Linux Mint uses ``ubuntu`` as its EFI boot name.
4. To fix the boot order, type ``sudo efibootmgr --bootorder XXXX,YYYY`` (where ``XXXX`` and ``YYYY`` represent the operating system boot options you want to boot).
4. To fix the boot order, type ``sudo efibootmgr --bootorder XXXX,YYYY`` (where ``XXXX`` and ``YYYY`` are the operating system boot options you want to boot).
.. figure:: images/efibootmgr-2.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
In the example above, we typed ``sudo efibootmgr --bootorder 0000,0081``, to instruct the computer to first try to boot Linux Mint (``ubuntu`` being the EFI boot name for Linux Mint), and then Mac OS.
In the screenshot above, ``sudo efibootmgr --bootorder 0000,0081`` instructs the computer to first try to boot Linux Mint (``ubuntu`` being the EFI boot name for Linux Mint), and then Mac OS.
5. Restart the computer.
.. note::
In our example ``0000`` is the first boot option so the computer boots on the Linux Mint grub menu. If we decide to quit the grub menu by typing ``exit``, the computer falls back to the second boot option in its boot order and consequently boots ``0081``, which corresponds to Mac Os.
\ No newline at end of file
In the screenshot above ``0000`` is the first boot option so the computer boots on the Linux Mint grub menu. If grub fails (or if it is dismissed with the ``exit`` command), the computer follows the boot order and then tries to boot ``0081``, which corresponds to Mac OS.
\ No newline at end of file
Where to find help
==================
Many users will be glad to help you and guide you through your first steps with Linux if you are nice and patient with them and if you give them the information they require to understand the issues you're facing.
Many users will be glad to help you and guide you through your first steps with Linux if you are nice and patient with them and if you give them the information they require to understand the issues you are facing.
The forums
----------
The best place to find help is on the Linux Mint forums:
https://forums.linuxmint.com/
The best place to find help is on the `Linux Mint Forums <https://forums.linuxmint.com>`_.
.. hint::
Search the forums before asking, in case someone else already asked the same question.
......@@ -20,10 +18,13 @@ Another great place to find help is in the IRC chat room.
To reach the chat room from within Linux Mint, launch :menuselection:`Menu --> Internet --> HexChat`.
If you're using another operating system, you can reach the chat room via a web interface by clicking `Here <https://kiwiirc.com/client/irc.spotchat.org/?i#linuxmint-help>`_.
If you are using another operating system, you can use `Kiwiirc <https://kiwiirc.com/client/irc.spotchat.org/?i#linuxmint-help>`_ to connect to the chat room.
.. hint::
Many people are connected to the chat room but only look at it now and then. Be patient after asking a question. Don't repeat it and stay connected until you get an answer. It can sometimes take a few hours for somebody to see your question and reply to you. Don't quit after a few minutes. It is frustrating to you, but also to others who later see your question and are unable to reply because you already left.
.. hint::
Many people are connected to the chat room but only look at it now and then. The best way to use the chat room is to ask your question once and stay connected until you get an answer. It can sometimes take a few hours for somebody to look at the chat room, see your question and reply to you. Don't just ask and quit after a few minutes, that is frustrating to you and even more frustrating to people who know the answer and couldn't reply to you because you already left.
If you are using Hexchat, you can minimize it to tray by clicking its status icon. People will often mention your nickname when replying to you. When they do, your Hexchat status icon will blink to catch your attention.
Community resources
-------------------
......
......@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Install Linux Mint
The live session
----------------
After you boot the computer from the USB stick (or DVD), Linux Mint should start a ``live session``, i.e. log you in automatically as a user called ``mint`` and show you a desktop with the installer on it:
When you boot the computer from the USB stick (or DVD), Linux Mint starts a ``live session``. It logs you in automatically as a user called ``mint`` and shows you a desktop with the installer on it:
.. figure:: images/cinnamon.png
:width: 500px
......@@ -12,21 +12,21 @@ After you boot the computer from the USB stick (or DVD), Linux Mint should start
The Linux Mint live session
The ``live session`` is very similar to a normal session (i.e. to what Linux Mint is like once it is permanently installed on the computer), but with the following exceptions:
The ``live session`` is similar to a normal session (i.e. to Linux Mint once it is permanently installed on the computer), but with the following exceptions:
* The Live session is usually much slower (it runs in memory and from a USB stick or DVD, which are usually much slower than typical SSD/HDD drives)
* Changes you make in the live session are not permanent, they only affect the present session. These changes are not written to the USB stick (or DVD) and they do not impact the system installed by the installer.
* Due to technical limitations and/or design, some software either doesn't work or works differently in live sessions (Timeshift, Flatpak, Update Manager, Welcome Screen..etc.)
* The Live session is slower (it is loaded from a USB stick or DVD as opposed to a SSD or HDD).
* Changes you make in the live session are not permanent. They are not written to the USB stick (or DVD) and they do not impact the system installed by the installer.
* Some applications work differently (or not at all) in the live session (Timeshift, Flatpak, Update Manager, Welcome Screen..etc.).
.. hint::
The username for the live session is ``mint`` and the password is blank (i.e. there is no password, if asked for a password just press :kbd:`Enter`)
The username for the live session is ``mint``. If asked for a password press :kbd:`Enter`.
Installing Linux Mint on the computer
-------------------------------------
To permanently install Linux Mint on your computer (to your SSD or HDD drive):
To permanently install Linux Mint on your computer:
1. Launch the installer by double-clicking the :guilabel:`Install Linux Mint` icon.
1. Double-click :guilabel:`Install Linux Mint`.
2. Select your language.
......@@ -40,9 +40,6 @@ To permanently install Linux Mint on your computer (to your SSD or HDD drive):
:width: 500px
:align: center
This step is optional but it saves time post-installation. It allows the installer to download language support packages and multimedia codecs.
4. If you are connected to the Internet, tick the box to install the multimedia codecs.
.. figure:: images/installer-codecs.png
......@@ -58,28 +55,28 @@ This step is optional but it saves time post-installation. It allows the install
If Linux Mint is the only operating system you want to run on this computer and all data can be lost on the hard drive, choose :guilabel:`Erase disk and install Linux Mint`.
.. warning::
:guilabel:`Encrypt the new Linux Mint installation for security` refers to full disk encryption. At this stage of the installation your keyboard layout wasn't yet selected so it is set to en_US. Please keep this in mind when entering a password if you decide to use this option. Note that there are also issues with this option and some NVIDIA drivers. If you are new to Linux, we recommend using home directory encryption instead (which you can select later during the installation).
:guilabel:`Encrypt the new Linux Mint installation for security` refers to full disk encryption. At this stage of the installation your keyboard layout wasn't yet selected so it is set to en_US. If you decide to use this option, keep this in mind when entering a password. Note that there are issues with this option and some NVIDIA drivers. If you are new to Linux use home directory encryption instead (you can select it later during the installation).
If another operating system is present on the computer, the installer will show you an option to install Linux Mint alongside it. If you choose this option, the installer will automatically resize your existing operating system, make room and install Linux Mint beside it and set up a boot menu so you can choose between the two operating systems each time you start your computer.
If another operating system is present on the computer, the installer shows you an option to install Linux Mint alongside it. If you choose this option, the installer automatically resizes your existing operating system, makes room and installs Linux Mint beside it. A boot menu is set up to choose between the two operating systems each time you start your computer.
.. note::
If you want to manage the partitions yourself or manually specify which partitions to use, select the :guilabel:`Something else` option.
If you want to manage the partitions or specify which partitions to use, select the :guilabel:`Something else` option.
.. figure:: images/installer-partitions.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
At the very least, Linux Mint requires one partition to be mounted on the root ``/`` directory.
Linux Mint requires one partition to be mounted on the root ``/`` directory.
A small Linux Mint system (without counting additional software and personal data) takes roughly 15GB, so give this partition a decent size (100GB or more).
The Linux Mint operating system (without additional software or personal data) takes roughly 15GB, so give this partition a decent size (100GB or more).
We recommend you use the ``ext4`` filesystem type (it is the most popular among Linux users).
``ext4`` is recommended. It is the most popular Linux filesystem.
.. figure:: images/installer-partition.png
:align: center
You should also have a ``swap`` partition. This partition is used for hibernation and as a safety buffer in case your computer runs out of RAM. You can give this partition a size equal to the amount of RAM in your computer.
Also create a ``swap`` partition. This partition is used for hibernation and as a safety buffer in case your computer runs out of RAM. Give this partition a size equal to the amount of RAM in your computer.
6. Select your timezone
......@@ -99,17 +96,17 @@ If another operating system is present on the computer, the installer will show
:width: 500px
:align: center
Your ``name`` can be your real name, but it doesn't have to be. It will appear in your screensaver by default and on your login screen. It's only used locally.
Your ``name`` can be your real name, but it doesn't have to be. It is only used locally, in the screensaver and on the login screen.
Your ``username`` is what you log in as, and your ``hostname`` is the name of your computer on the network.
To prevent bugs only use lowercase characters, with no punctuation or accentuation when entering these.
To prevent bugs only use lowercase characters, with no punctuation or accentuation.
If you want to protect your personal data against local attacks (people around you, or in case your computer gets stolen), tick :guilabel:`Encrypt my home folder`.
To protect your personal data against local attacks (people around you, or in case your computer gets stolen), tick :guilabel:`Encrypt my home folder`.
For the same reason, choose a strong password.
Choose a strong password.
9. Enjoy the slideshow while Linux Mint is installed on your computer
9. Enjoy the slideshow while Linux Mint is installed on your computer.
.. figure:: images/installer-slideshow.png
:width: 500px
......
......@@ -3,20 +3,17 @@ Language support
Language support includes translations but also packages related to spell-checking, synonyms, hyphenation and dictionnaries which enhance your experience in software applications such as LibreOffice.
.. note::
Depending on your locale and whether or not you were online during the installation, some of these packages might already be installed.
1. Launch the language settings by opening :menuselection:`Menu --> Preferences --> Languages`.
1. Launch :menuselection:`Menu --> Preferences --> Languages`.
.. figure:: images/mintlocale.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
2. Click on :guilabel:`Install / Remove Language`.
2. Click :guilabel:`Install / Remove Language`.
.. figure:: images/mintlocale-2.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
3. If beside your locale, you see a label saying ``Some language packs are missing``, select your locale and click on :guilabel:`Install language packs`.
3. If beside your locale, you see a label saying ``Some language packs are missing``, select your locale and click :guilabel:`Install language packs`.
......@@ -13,39 +13,39 @@ For this reason, if you want to dual-boot or multi-boot with Windows, it is easi
Fix the boot sequence
---------------------
If Windows overwrites your boot sequence, do the following to fix it:
If Windows overwrites your boot sequence:
1. Boot Linux Mint in ``live`` mode (with your USB stick or DVD).
2. Open a terminal.
3. Type ``lsblk -f`` to list your partitions and find the partition where Linux Mint is installed.
3. To list your partitions, type ``lsblk -f``.
.. figure:: images/lsblkf.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
On most systems this should be the only ``ext4`` partition.
Find the partition where Linux Mint is installed. On most systems this should be the only ``ext4`` partition.
In the example above:
In the screenshot above:
* ``sdb`` is the USB stick itself (recognizable by its ``iso9660`` type which corresponds to an ISO image).
* ``sda`` is our hard drive.
* ``sdb`` is the USB stick (recognizable by its ``iso9660`` type which corresponds to an ISO image).
* ``sda`` is the hard drive.
* ``sda4`` is the partition on the ``sda`` hard drive, where Linux Mint is installed.
If you need more information about your partitions you can type ``lsblk`` to list the partition sizes:
To list partition sizes, type ``lsblk``:
.. figure:: images/lsblk.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
You can also type ``blkid`` to show more information (sometimes this command shows partition labels which aren't visible with ``lsblk``):
To list partition labels, type ``blkid``:
.. figure:: images/blkid.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
3. Mount the partition and reinstall the grub menu with the following commands:
3. Mount the Linux Mint partition and reinstall the grub menu with the following commands:
.. code-block:: console
......@@ -53,4 +53,4 @@ You can also type ``blkid`` to show more information (sometimes this command sho
sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt /dev/sda
.. warning::
In the commands above, make sure to replace /dev/sda4 and /dev/sda with the appropriate names for your Linux Mint partition and your hard drive device.
In the commands above, replace /dev/sda4 and /dev/sda with the appropriate names for your Linux Mint partition and your hard drive device.
......@@ -6,32 +6,32 @@ The ``OEM install`` option in the ISO boot menu is used to preinstall Linux Mint
This option is useful to:
* Manufacturers and resellers who want to install Linux Mint on computers they sell to their customers.
* People who want to sell, refurbish or give their computer to somebody else.
* People who want to sell or give their computer to somebody else.
When you install Linux Mint in ``OEM`` mode, the installer installs the operating system on the computer but does not set up the user account.
When you install Linux Mint in ``OEM`` mode, the operating system is installed with a temporary user account and prepared for the computer's future owner.
This final step is performed by the customer (or the new owner of the computer) when the computer is booted, after the purchase (or gift), for the first time.
The user account is set up by the new owner.
To perform an OEM installation follow the steps below:
1. Select the ``OEM Install`` option from the USB stick (or DVD) menu.
1. Select ``OEM Install`` from the USB stick (or DVD) menu.
2. Launch the installer and follow the installation instructions.
3. Reboot the computer.
3. Restart the computer.
4. Change any system settings or install additional software if you want.
5. When the system is ready, click :guilabel:`Prepare for shipping to end user`, enter the password you chose during the installation, click :guilabel:`OK` and shut down the computer.
5. When ready, click :guilabel:`Prepare for shipping to end user`, enter the password you chose during the installation, click :guilabel:`OK` and shut down the computer.
.. figure:: images/oem.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
When the new owner of the computer boots the computer the following screen will appear to create the user account:
When the new owner of the computer boots the computer the following screen appears:
.. figure:: images/oem-user.png
:width: 500px
:align: center
The new owner will get the opportunity to select his/her username, password, keyboard layout, language, timezone and all the details relevant to create his/her user account.
The new owner selects his or her username, password, keyboard layout, language, timezone and all the details relevant to create his or her user account.
......@@ -4,21 +4,21 @@ Partitioning
Device and partition names
--------------------------
The Linux naming scheme for devices and partitions is simple but it can be confusing to novice users. If you are not familiar with it, please click `here <https://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/amd64/apcs04.html.en>`_.
If you are not familiar with the Linux naming scheme for devices and partitions, read `Device Names in Linux <https://www.debian.org/releases/wheezy/amd64/apcs04.html.en>`_.
Filesystem and mount points
---------------------------
If you are not familiar with the Linux filesystem and the concept of mount points, please click `here <http://etutorials.org/Linux+systems/red+hat+linux+9+professional+secrets/Part+II+Exploring+Red+Hat+Linux/Chapter+7+Red+Hat+Linux+Basics/Understanding+the+Linux+File+System/>`_.
If you are not familiar with the Linux filesystem and the concept of mount points, read `Understanding the Linux File System <http://etutorials.org/Linux+systems/red+hat+linux+9+professional+secrets/Part+II+Exploring+Red+Hat+Linux/Chapter+7+Red+Hat+Linux+Basics/Understanding+the+Linux+File+System/>`_.
Dedicated /home partition
-------------------------
In Linux, the ``/home`` directory is used to store user data and preferences.
This directory usually contains one subdirectoy for each user account. So if your username is ``john``, your home directory is likely to be ``/home/john``, your downloads are likely to be in ``/home/john/Downloads``, your documents in ``/home/john/Documents``, your Firefox bookmarks somewhere in ``/home/john/.mozilla`` and so on...
This directory contains one subdirectoy for each user account. Say your username is ``john``, your home directory is ``/home/john``, your downloads are in ``/home/john/Downloads``, your documents in ``/home/john/Documents``, your Firefox bookmarks somewhere in ``/home/john/.mozilla`` and so on...
By placing ``/home`` on its own dedicated partition, you separate the user data from the rest of the operating system.
By giving ``/home`` its own dedicated partition, you separate the user data from the rest of the operating system.
The advantage is that you can wipe the operating system and replace it without affecting the user data.
......@@ -32,4 +32,4 @@ When installing Linux Mint:
This is not recommended for novice users. A misstep during the installation could wipe all your data. Always make backups, make sure to select the right partitions and to carefully review formatting options.
.. note::
A Linux Mint operating system roughly takes 15GB. Account for additional software and give it 50GB if you can spare the size. Keep most of your free space for your home partition, since your downloads, videos, pictures and user data is what will take the biggest amount of space.
A Linux Mint operating system takes about 15GB and grows as you install additional software. If you can spare the size, give it 100GB. Keep most of your free space for the home partition. User data (downloads, videos, pictures) takes a lot more space.
System snapshots
================
Before you start using your operating system, we recommend you set up system snapshots. That way if anything goes wrong, you can simply restore your system from an earlier backup.
Before you start using your operating system, set up system snapshots. Then if anything goes wrong, you can restore your system from an earlier backup.
1. To set up system snapshots, launch :menuselection:`Menu --> Administration --> Timeshift`.
1. Launch :menuselection:`Menu --> Administration --> Timeshift`.
2. Select ``RSYNC`` (unless you chose ``btrfs`` instead of ``ext4`` for your filesystem during the installation) and click :guilabel:`Next`.
2. Select ``RSYNC`` and click :guilabel:`Next`.
.. figure:: images/timeshift-1.png
:align: center
......@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ Before you start using your operating system, we recommend you set up system sna
:align: center
.. note::
This does not format the select device. No data is lost during this step. System snapshots are saved into a newly created ``timeshift`` directory on the root of the selected device.
The selected device is not formatted and no data is lost. System snapshots are saved into a newly created ``timeshift`` directory on the root of the selected device.
4. Select when system snapshots are saved.
......@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ Before you start using your operating system, we recommend you set up system sna
System snapshots are incremental so although the first snapshot takes a significant amount of spaces, new snapshots only take additional space for files which have changed.
.. note::
Although ``boot`` snapshots are performed during the boot, they happen in the background and with a delay. They do not impact the speed of the boot sequence.
``Boot`` snapshots are performed in the background and do not impact the speed of the boot sequence.
5. Click :guilabel:`Finish`.
......
Verify your ISO image
=====================
It is important to verify the integrity and authenticity of your ISO image before using it to install Linux Mint.
It is important to verify the integrity and authenticity of your ISO image.
The integrity check confirms that your ISO image was properly downloaded and that your local file is an exact copy of the file present on the download servers. An error during the download could result in a corrupted file and trigger random issues during the installation.
......@@ -12,14 +12,14 @@ Download the SHA256 sums provided by Linux Mint
All `download mirrors <https://www.linuxmint.com/mirrors.php>`_ provide the ISO images, a ``sha256sum.txt`` file and a ``sha256sum.txt.gpg`` file. You should be able to find these files in the same place you downloaded the ISO image from.
If you are unable to find them, you can browse `this mirror <https://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/linuxmint.com/stable/>`_ and select the version corresponding to the Linux Mint release you downloaded.
If you can't find them, browse the `Heanet download mirror <https://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/linuxmint.com/stable/>`_ and click the version of the Linux Mint release you downloaded.
Download both the ``sha256sum.txt`` and the ``sha256sum.txt.gpg`` files. These two files are used to check the integrity and authenticity of your ISO image.
Download both ``sha256sum.txt`` and ``sha256sum.txt.gpg``.
Integrity check
---------------
To check the integrity of your local ISO file, generate its SHA256 sum and compare it with the sum present in the ``sha256sum.txt`` file.
To check the integrity of your local ISO file, generate its SHA256 sum and compare it with the sum present in ``sha256sum.txt``.
.. code-block:: console
......@@ -28,18 +28,14 @@ To check the integrity of your local ISO file, generate its SHA256 sum and compa
.. hint::
If you are using Windows you can get the sha256sum (and gpg) command utility by installing `Cygwin <http://www.cygwin.com/>`_.
If the sums match, your file was successfully downloaded. If they don't, download it again.
.. hint::
Choose a different download server if this check keeps failing.
If the sums match, your ISO image was successfully downloaded. If they don't, download it again.
`````
Authenticity check
------------------
To verify the authenticity of the ``sha256sum.txt`` file, we need to check the signature on the ``sha256sum.txt.gpg`` file.
To verify the authenticity of ``sha256sum.txt``, check the signature of ``sha256sum.txt.gpg`` by following the steps below.
Import the Linux Mint signing key:
``````````````````````````````````
......@@ -57,16 +53,16 @@ Import the Linux Mint signing key:
Check the output of the last command, to make sure the fingerprint is ``27DE B156 44C6 B3CF 3BD7 D291 300F 846B A25B AE09``.
Verify the authenticity of the sha256sum.txt file:
``````````````````````````````````````````````````
Verify the authenticity of sha256sum.txt:
`````````````````````````````````````````
.. code-block:: console
gpg --verify sha256sum.txt.gpg sha256sum.txt
The output of the last command should tell you that the file signature is 'good' and that it was signed with the following key: ``A25BAE09``.
The output of the last command should tell you that the file signature is ``good`` and that it was signed with the ``A25BAE09`` key.
.. note::
Unless you trusted the Linux Mint signature in the past, or a signature which trusted it, GPG should warn you that the Linux Mint signature is not trusted. This is expected and perfectly normal.
GPG might warn you that the Linux Mint signature is not trusted by your computer. This is expected and perfectly normal.
.. hint::
For more information on ISO verification, or to verify BETA, LMDE or old releases, please click `here <https://linuxmint.com/verify.php>`_.
For more information on ISO verification, or to verify BETA, LMDE or old releases, read `How to Verify ISO images <https://linuxmint.com/verify.php>`_.
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