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[Fortune] Marx: Early Philosophical Writings

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<!-- [1994 Marx-Selected_Writings] Karl Marx: Selected Writings -->
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<Person foaf:name="Karl Marx"/>
<name>Selected Writings</name>
<Organization rdf:about="" foaf:name="Hackett"/>
<dc:date rdf:datatype="">1994</dc:date>
<!-- From 鈥淥n the Jewish Question鈥 -->
< rdf:about="?/Marx-Selected_Writings/only_by_presupposing">
< rdf:resource=""/>
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<html:p>The state abolishes distinctions of <html:em>birth</html:em>, <html:em>rank</html:em>, <html:em>education</html:em>, and <html:em>occupation</html:em> in its fashion when it declares them to be <html:em>non鈥恜olitical</html:em> distinctions, when it proclaims that every member of the community <html:em>equally</html:em> participates in popular sovereignty without regard to these distinctions, and when it deals with all elements of the actual life of the nation from the standpoint of the state.鈥
Nevertheless the state permits private property, education, and occupation to <html:em>act</html:em> and manifest their <html:em>particular</html:em> nature as private property, education, and occupation in their <html:em>own</html:em> ways.鈥
Far from overcoming these <html:em>factual</html:em> distinctions, the state exists only by presupposing them; it is aware of itself as a <html:em>political state</html:em> and makes its <html:em>universality</html:em> effective only in opposition to these elements.</html:p>
< rdf:about="?/Marx-Selected_Writings/rights_of_man">
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<html:p>The <html:em>rights of man</html:em> as <html:em>such</html:em> are distinguished from the <html:em>rights of the citizen</html:em>.鈥
Who is this <html:em>man</html:em> distinguished from the <html:em>citizen</html:em>?鈥
None other than the <html:em>member of civil society</html:em>.鈥
Why is the member of civil society called 鈥渕an鈥, man without qualification, and why are his rights called the <html:em>rights of man</html:em>?</html:p>
<html:p>[鈥 none of the so鈥恈alled rights of men goes beyond the egoistic man, the man withdrawn into himself, his private interest and his private choice, and separated from the community as a member of civil society.鈥
Far from viewing man here in his species鈥恇eing, his species鈥恖ife itself鈥攕ociety鈥攔ather appears to be an external framework for the individual, limiting his original independence. The only bond between men is natural necessity, need and private interest, the maintenance of their property and egoistic persons.</html:p>
<html:p>It is somewhat curious that a nation just beginning to free itself, tearing down all the barriers between different sections of the people and founding a political community, should solemnly proclaim (Declaration of 1971) the justification of the egoistic man, man separated from his fellow men and from the community, and should even repeat this proclamation at a moment when only the most heroic sacrifice can save the nation and hence is urgently required, when the sacrifice of all the interests of civil society is highly imperative and egoism must be punished as a crime (Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1973).鈥
This becomes even more curious when we observe that the political liberators reduce citizenship, the <html:em>political community</html:em>, to a mere <html:em>means</html:em> for preserving these so鈥恈alled rights of man and that the citizen thus is proclaimed to be a servant to the egoistic man, the sphere in which man acts as a member of the community is degraded below that in which he acts as a fractional being, and finally man as bourgeois rather than man as citizen is considered to be the <html:em>proper</html:em> and <html:em>authentic</html:em> man.</html:p>
< rdf:about="?/Marx-Selected_Writings/right_of_liberty">
< rdf:resource=""/>
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<html:p>The most radical constitution, the Constitution of 1793, may be quoted:</html:p>
<html:p><html:strong style="All: Unset; Font-Style: Italic">Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.</html:strong></html:p>
<html:p><html:strong style="All: Unset; Font-Style: Italic">Art. 2.</html:strong>
鈥淭hese rights (the natural and imprescriptible rights) are: <html:em>equality</html:em>, <html:em>liberty</html:em>, <html:em>security</html:em>, <html:em>property</html:em>.鈥</html:p>
<html:p>What is this <html:em>liberty</html:em>?</html:p>
<html:p><html:strong style="All: Unset; Font-Style: Italic">Art. 6.</html:strong>
鈥淟iberty is the power belonging to each man to do anything which does not impair the rights of others鈥, or according to the Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1791:鈥
鈥淟iberty is the power to do anything which does not harm others.鈥</html:p>
<html:p>Liberty is thus the right to do and perform anything that does not harm others.鈥
The limits within which each can act <html:em>without harming</html:em> others is determined by law just as the boundary between two fields is marked by a stake.鈥
This is the liberty of man viewed as an isolated monad, withdrawn into himself.鈥
[鈥 liberty as a right of man is not based on the association of man with man but rather on the separation of man from man.鈥
It is the <html:em>right</html:em> of this separation, the right of the <html:em>limited</html:em> individual limited to himself.</html:p>
<html:p>The practical application of the right of liberty is the right of <html:em>private property.</html:em></html:p>
<!-- From 鈥淭oward a Critique of Hegel鈥檚 鈥楶hilosophy of Right鈥: Introduction鈥 -->
< rdf:about="?/Marx-Selected_Writings/the_head_of_passion">
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<html:p>In its struggle against these conditions criticism is not a passion of the head but the head of passion.鈥
It is not a lancet, it is a weapon.鈥
Its object is an <html:em>enemy</html:em> it wants not to refute but to <html:em>destroy</html:em>.鈥
For the spirit of these conditions has already been refuted.鈥
In and for themselves they are objects not <html:em>worthy of thought</html:em> but <html:em>existences</html:em> as despicable as they are despised.鈥
Criticism itself does not even need to be concerned with this matter, for it is already clear about it.鈥
Criticism is no longer an <html:em>end in itself</html:em> but simply a <html:em>means</html:em>.</html:p>
<html:p>The criticism dealing with this matter is criticism in <html:em>hand鈥恡o鈥恏and</html:em> combat, and in such combat the point is not whether the opponent is noble, equal, or <html:em>interesting</html:em>, the point is to <html:em>strike</html:em> him.</html:p>
<!-- From 鈥淓conomic and Philosophic Manuscripts鈥 -->
< rdf:about="?/Marx-Selected_Writings/gods_alone_were_never">
< rdf:resource=""/>
<rdf:value rdf:parseType="Literal">
<html:p>But gods alone were never workmasters.鈥
The same is true of <html:em>nature</html:em>.</html:p>
< rdf:about="?/Marx-Selected_Writings/keep_in_mind_the_circular_movement">
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<html:p>It is easy indeed to tell a particular individual what Aristotle said:鈥
You were begotten by your father and mother, so in you the mating of two human beings, a generic act of mankind, produced another.鈥
You see therefore that man owes even his physical existence to another.鈥
Here you must not keep in view only <html:em>one</html:em> of the two aspects, the <html:em>infinite</html:em> progression, and ask further,鈥
Who begot my father?鈥
Who is his grandfather?鈥
You must also keep in mind the <html:em>circular movement</html:em> sensibly apparent in that process whereby man reproduces himself in procreation; thus <html:em>man</html:em> always remains the subject.</html:p>
<!-- [2011-10-04/2020-03-24 Chihayafuru] Chihayafuru -->
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