GitLab Geo database replication
Note: This is the documentation for the Omnibus GitLab packages. For installations from source, follow the database replication for installations from source guide.
Note: Stages of the setup process must be completed in the documented order. Before attempting the steps in this stage, complete all prior stages.
- Install GitLab Enterprise Edition on the server that will serve as the secondary Geo node. Do not login or set up anything else in the secondary node for the moment.
- Upload the GitLab License to the primary Geo Node to unlock GitLab Geo.
Setup the database replication (
primary (read-write) <-> secondary (read-only)topology).
- Configure SSH authorizations to use the database
- Configure GitLab to set the primary and secondary nodes.
- Optional: Configure a secondary LDAP server for the secondary. See notes on LDAP.
- Follow the after setup steps.
This document describes the minimal steps you have to take in order to replicate your GitLab database into another server. You may have to change some values according to your database setup, how big it is, etc.
You are encouraged to first read through all the steps before executing them in your testing/production environment.
The GitLab primary node where the write operations happen will connect to primary database server, and the secondary ones which are read-only will connect to secondary database servers (which are read-only too).
Note: In many databases documentation you will see "primary" being referenced as "master" and "secondary" as either "slave" or "standby" server (read-only).
Since GitLab 9.4: We recommend using PostgreSQL replication slots to ensure the primary retains all the data necessary for the secondaries to recover. See below for more details.
The following guide assumes that:
- You are using PostgreSQL 9.6 or later which includes the
pg_basebackuptool. If you are using Omnibus it includes the required PostgreSQL version for Geo.
- You have a primary server already set up (the GitLab server you are replicating from), running Omnibus' PostgreSQL (or equivalent version), and you have a new secondary server set up on the same OS and PostgreSQL version. Also make sure the GitLab version is the same on all nodes.
- The IP of the primary server for our examples will be
18.104.22.168, whereas the secondary's IP will be
22.214.171.124. Note that the primary and secondary servers must be able to communicate over these addresses (using HTTPS & SSH). These IP addresses can either be public or private.
Step 1. Configure the primary server
SSH into your GitLab primary server and login as root:
Execute the command below to define the node as primary Geo node:
This command will use your defined
Omnibus GitLab has already a replication user called
gitlab_replicator. You must set its password manually. You will be prompted to enter a password:
This command will also read
setting in case you have changed
gitlab_replicator username to something
Set up TLS support for the PostgreSQL primary server
Warning: Only skip this step if you know that PostgreSQL traffic between the primary and secondary will be secured through some other means, e.g., a known-safe physical network path or a site-to-site VPN that you have configured.
If you are replicating your database across the open Internet, it is essential that the connection is TLS-secured. Correctly configured, this provides protection against both passive eavesdroppers and active "man-in-the-middle" attackers.
To do this, PostgreSQL needs to be provided with a key and certificate to use. There are two options to do this:
Option A: Re-use the same files you're using for your main GitLab instance.
Option B: Generate a self-signed certificate just for PostgreSQL's use.
Prefer option A if you already have a long-lived certificate. Prefer option B if your certificates expire regularly (e.g., Let's Encrypt), or if PostgreSQL is running on a different server to the main GitLab services (this may be the case in a HA configuration, for instance).
For Option A:
Copy the SSL keys from your existing GitLab installation. If you're re-using certificates already in GitLab, they are likely to be in the
/etc/gitlab/ssldirectory. Copy them into the PostgreSQL directory via this example:
# Certificate and key currently used by GitLab # - replace primary.geo.example.com with your domain install -o gitlab-psql -g gitlab-psql -m 0400 -T /etc/gitlab/ssl/primary.geo.example.com.crt ~gitlab-psql/data/server.crt install -o gitlab-psql -g gitlab-psql -m 0400 -T /etc/gitlab/ssl/primary.geo.example.com.key ~gitlab-psql/data/server.key
For Option B:
To generate a self-signed certificate and key, run this command:
openssl req -nodes -batch -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout server.key -out server.crt -days 3650
This will create two files -
server.crt- that you can use for authentication.
PostgreSQL's permission requirements are very strict, so whether you're re-using your certificates or just generated new ones, copy the files to the correct location:
# Self-signed certificate and key # - assumes the files are in your current working directory install -o gitlab-psql -g gitlab-psql -m 0400 -T server.crt ~gitlab-psql/data/server.crt install -o gitlab-psql -g gitlab-psql -m 0400 -T server.key ~gitlab-psql/data/server.key
Add this configuration to
/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb. Additional options are documented here.
postgresql['ssl'] = 'on'
Configure PostgreSQL to listen on an external network interface
/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rband add the following. Note that GitLab 9.1 added the
geo_primary_role['enable'] = true postgresql['listen_address'] = "126.96.36.199" postgresql['trust_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['127.0.0.1/32','188.8.131.52/32'] postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['184.108.40.206/32'] # New for 9.4: Set this to be the number of Geo secondary nodes you have postgresql['max_replication_slots'] = 1 # postgresql['max_wal_senders'] = 10 # postgresql['wal_keep_segments'] = 10
220.127.116.11is the IP address of the primary server, and
18.104.22.168is the IP address of the secondary one.
For security reasons, PostgreSQL by default only listens on the local interface (e.g. 127.0.0.1). However, GitLab Geo needs to communicate between the primary and secondary nodes over a common network, such as a corporate LAN or the public Internet. For this reason, we need to configure PostgreSQL to listen on more interfaces.
listen_addressoption opens PostgreSQL up to external connections with the interface corresponding to the given IP. See the PostgreSQL documentation for more details.
Note that if you are running GitLab Geo with a cloud provider (e.g. Amazon Web Services), the internal interface IP (as provided by
ifconfig) may be different from the public IP address. For example, suppose you have a nodes with the following configuration:
Node Type Internal IP External IP Primary 10.1.5.3 22.214.171.124 Secondary 10.1.10.5 126.96.36.199
If you are running two nodes in different cloud availability zones, you may need to double check that the nodes can communicate over the internal IP addresses. For example, servers on Amazon Web Services in the same Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) can do this. Google Compute Engine also offers an internal network that supports cross-availability zone networking.
For the above example, the following configuration uses the internal IPs to replicate the database from the primary to the secondary:
# Example configuration using internal IPs for a cloud configuration geo_primary_role['enable'] = true postgresql['listen_address'] = "10.1.5.3" postgresql['trust_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['127.0.0.1/32','10.1.5.3/32'] postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['10.1.10.5/32'] postgresql['max_replication_slots'] = 1 # Number of Geo secondary nodes # postgresql['max_wal_senders'] = 10 # postgresql['wal_keep_segments'] = 10
If you prefer that your nodes communicate over the public Internet, you may choose the IP addresses from the "External IP" column above.
Optional: If you want to add another secondary, the relevant setting would look like:
postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['188.8.131.52/32','184.108.40.206/32']
You may also want to edit the
max_wal_sendersto match your database replication requirements. Consult the PostgreSQL - Replication documentation for more information.
Check to make sure your firewall rules are set so that the secondary nodes can access port
5432on the primary node.
Save the file and reconfigure GitLab for the DB listen changes to take effect. This will fail and is expected.
You will need to manually restart postgres
gitlab-ctl restart postgresqluntil Omnibus#2797 gets fixed.
You should now reconfigure again, and it should complete cleanly.
New for 9.4: Restart your primary PostgreSQL server to ensure the replication slot changes take effect (
sudo gitlab-ctl restart postgresqlfor Omnibus-provided PostgreSQL).
Now that the PostgreSQL server is set up to accept remote connections, run
netstat -plntto make sure that PostgreSQL is listening on port
5432to the server's public IP.
Step 2. Add the secondary GitLab node
To prevent the secondary geo node trying to act as the primary once the database is replicated, the secondary geo node must be configured on the primary before the database is replicated.
- Visit the primary node's Admin Area ➔ Geo Nodes
/admin/geo_nodes) in your browser.
- Add the secondary node by providing its full URL. Do NOT check the box 'This is a primary node'.
- Added in GitLab 9.5: Choose which namespaces should be replicated by the secondary node. Leave blank to replicate all. Read more in selective replication.
- Click the Add node button.
Step 3. Configure the secondary server
SSH into your GitLab secondary server and login as root:
Set up PostgreSQL TLS verification on the secondary
If you configured PostgreSQL to accept TLS connections in Step 1, then you need to provide a list of "known-good" certificates to the secondary. It uses this list to keep the connection secure against an active "man-in-the-middle" attack.
If you reused your existing certificates on the primary, you can use the list of valid root certificates provided with omnibus.
Or, if you generated a self-signed certificate, copy the generated
server.crtfile onto the secondary server from the primary, then install it in the right location.
# Certificate and key currently used by GitLab mkdir -p ~gitlab-psql/.postgresql ln -s /opt/gitlab/embedded/ssl/certs/cacert.pem ~gitlab-psql/.postgresql/root.crt # Self-signed certificate and key install -o gitlab-psql -g gitlab-psql -m 0400 -T server.crt ~gitlab-psql/.postgresql/root.crt
PostgreSQL will now only recognize that exact certificate when verifying TLS connections.
Test that the remote connection to the primary server works.
# Certificate and key currently used by GitLab sudo -u gitlab-psql /opt/gitlab/embedded/bin/psql -h primary.geo.example.com -U gitlab_replicator -d "dbname=gitlabhq_production sslmode=verify-ca" -W # Self-signed certificate and key sudo -u gitlab-psql /opt/gitlab/embedded/bin/psql -h 220.127.116.11 -U gitlab_replicator -d "dbname=gitlabhq_production sslmode=verify-full" -W
When prompted enter the password you set in the first step for the
gitlab_replicatoruser. If all worked correctly, you should see the database prompt.
Exit the PostgreSQL console:
/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rband add the following:
geo_secondary_role['enable'] = true
Reconfigure GitLab for the changes to take effect.
Setup clock synchronization service in your Linux distro. This can easily be done via any NTP-compatible daemon. For example, here are instructions for setting up NTP with Ubuntu.
IMPORTANT: For Geo to work correctly, all nodes must be with their clocks synchronized. It is not required for all nodes to be set to the same time zone, but when the respective times are converted to UTC time, the clocks must be synchronized to within 60 seconds of each other.
Step 4. Initiate the replication process
Below we provide a script that connects to the primary server, replicates the database and creates the needed files for replication.
The directories used are the defaults that are set up in Omnibus. If you have changed any defaults or are using a source installation, configure it as you see fit replacing the directories and paths.
Warning: Make sure to run this on the secondary server as it removes all PostgreSQL's data before running
SSH into your GitLab secondary server and login as root:
New for 9.4: Choose a database-friendly name to use for your secondary to use as the replication slot name. For example, if your domain is
geo-secondary.mydomain.com, you may use
geo_secondary_my_domain_comas the slot name.
Execute the command below to start a backup/restore and begin the replication:
# Certificate and key currently used by GitLab gitlab-ctl replicate-geo-database --host=geo.primary.my.domain.com --slot-name=geo_secondary_my_domain_com # Self-signed certificate and key gitlab-ctl replicate-geo-database --host=18.104.22.168 --slot-name=geo_secondary_my_domain_com --sslmode=verify-ca
If PostgreSQL is listening on a non-standard port, add
If you have to connect to a specific IP address, rather than the FQDN of the primary, to reach your PostgreSQL server, then you should pass
--sslmode=verify-caas well. This should only be the case if you have also used a self-signed certificate.
verify-cais not safe if you are connecting to an IP address and re-using an existing TLS certificate!
--sslmode=preferif you are happy to skip PostgreSQL TLS authentication altogether (e.g., you know the network path is secure, or you are using a site-to-site VPN).
You can read more details about each
sslmodein the PostgreSQL documentation; the instructions above are carefully written to ensure protection against both passive eavesdroppers and active "man-in-the-middle" attackers.
When prompted, enter the password you set up for the
gitlab_replicatoruser in the first step.
New for 9.4: Change the
--slot-nameto the name of the replication slot to be used on the primary database. The script will attempt to create the replication slot automatically if it does not exist.
This command also takes a number of additional options. You can use
--helpto list them all, but here are a couple of tips:
If you're setting up replication on a brand-new secondary that has no data, you may want to pass
--no-wait --skip-backupto speed up the process - but be certain that you're running it against the right GitLab installation first! It will cause data loss otherwise.
If you're repurposing an old server into a Geo secondary, you'll need to add
--forceto the command line.
The replication process is now over.
Now that the database replication is done, the next step is to configure GitLab.
We don't support MySQL replication for GitLab Geo.
Read the troubleshooting document.