Commit 7cdb4fc6 authored by Benjamin Slade's avatar Benjamin Slade

fix encoding in caedmon text

parent 7fc36804
Pipeline #117260247 passed with stage
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......@@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ to þæm tungerefan, þe his ealdormon wæs. Sægde
him hwylc gife he onfeng, ond he hine sona to þære abbudissan
gel&aelig;dde ond hire <a href="caedmon-notes.html#10" target="notes">&thorn;&aelig;t</a>
cy&eth;de ond s&aelig;gde. &THORN;a heht heo gesomnian ealle &thorn;a gel&aelig;redestan
men ond &thorn;a leorneras, ond him ondweardum het secgan t swefn ond t leo singan, t ealra heora dome gecoren w&aelig;re, hw&aelig;t
men ond &thorn;a leorneras, ond him ondweardum het secgan þæt swefn ond þæt leoð singan, þæt ealra heora dome gecoren w&aelig;re, hw&aelig;t
o&eth;&eth;e hwonon &thorn;&aelig;t cumen w&aelig;re. &THORN;a w&aelig;s
him eallum gesegen swa swa hit w&aelig;s, &thorn;&aelig;t him w&aelig;re
from Drihtne sylfum heofonlic gifu forgifen. &THORN;a rehton heo him ond s&aelig;gdon sum halig spell ond godcundre lare word;
......@@ -341,11 +341,11 @@ best adorned song he sang and rendered what he was bid (to recite).</span>
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<td class="c9"> <span class="c7">a ongan seo abbudisse clyppan ond lufigean a Godes gife in &aelig;m men; ond heo hine a monade ond l&aelig;rde t he woruldhad anforlete ond munuchad onfenge, ond he t wel afode. Ond heo hine in t mynster onfeng mid his godum ond hine geeodde to gesomnunge ara Godes eowa; ond heht hine l&aelig;ran t getl s halgan st&aelig;res ond spelles. Ond he eal a he in geh&aelig;rnesse geleornian meahte mid hine gemyndgade, ond swa swa cl&aelig;ne neten eodorcende in t sweteste leo <a href="caedmon-notes.html#11" target="notes">gehwerfde</a>. Ond his song ond his leo w&aelig;ron swa wynsumu to geh&aelig;ranne tte a seolfan his lareowas t his mue wreoton ond leornodon. Song he &aelig;rest be middangeardes gesceape ond bi fruman moncynnes ond eal t st&aelig;r genesis (t is seo &aelig;reste Moyses booc), ond eft bi utgonge Israhela folces of gypta londe ond bi ingonge s gehatlandes, ond bi orum monegum spellum s halgan gewrites canones boca, ond bi Cristes menniscnesse ond bi his rowunge ond bi his upastignesse in heofonas, ond bi s Halgan Gastes cyme ond ara apostola lare, ond eft bi &aelig;m dge s toweardan domes ond bi fyrhtu s tintreglican wiites, ond bi swetnesse s heofonlecan rices he monig leo geworhte. Ond swelce eac oer monig be &aelig;m godcundan fremsumnessum ond domum he geworhte. In eallum &aelig;m he geornlice gemde t he men atuge from synna lufan ond mand&aelig;da, ond to lufan ond to geornfulnesse awehte godra d&aelig;da, for on he ws se mon swie &aelig;fest ond regollecum eodscipum eamodlice undereoded. Ond wi &aelig;m a e in ore wisan don woldon he ws mid welme micelre ellenwodnisse onbrned, ond he for on fgre nde his lif bet&aelig;nde ond geendade.
<BR><BR>For on a &aelig;re tide neal&aelig;cte his gewitenesse ond forfore, a ws he feowert&aelig;num dagum &aelig;r t he ws lichomlicre untrymnesse rycced ond hefgad, hwre to on gemetlice t he ealle a tid meahte ge sprecan ge gongan. Ws &aelig;r in neaweste untrumra monna hus, in &aelig;m heora eaw ws t heo a <a href="caedmon-notes.html#12" target="notes">untruman</a> ond a e t forfore w&aelig;ron in <a href="caedmon-notes.html#13" target="notes">l&aelig;dan</a> sceoldon ond him &aelig;r tsomne egnian. a bd he his egn on &aelig;fenne &aelig;re neahte e he of worulde gongende ws t he in &aelig;m huse him stowe gegearwode, t he gerestan meahte. a wundrode se egn for hwon he s b&aelig;de, for on him uhte t his forfor swa neah ne w&aelig;re; dyde hwre swa swa he cw ond bibead.
Ond mid &aelig; he a &aelig;r on reste eode ond he gefeonde mode sumu ing mid him sprecende tgdere ond gleowiende ws e &aelig;r &aelig;r inne w&aelig;ron, a ws ofer midde neaht t he frgn hwer heo &aelig;nig husl inne hfdon. a ondswarodon heo ond cw&aelig;don: "Hwylc earf is e husles&aelig; Ne inre forfore swa neah is, nu u us rotlice ond us gldlice to us sprecende eart." Cw he eft: "Bera me husl to." a he hit a on honda hfde, a frgn he hwer heo ealle smolt mod ond, buton eallum incan, blie to him hfdon. a ondswaredon h&aelig; ealle ond cw&aelig;don t heo n&aelig;nigne incan to him wiston, ac heo ealle him swie bliemode w&aelig;ron; ond heo wrixendlice hine b&aelig;don t he him eallum blie w&aelig;re. a ondswarade he ond cw: "Mine broor, mine a leofan, ic eom swie bliemod to eow ond to eallum Godes monnum." Ond <a href="caedmon-notes.html#14" target="notes">he</a> swa ws hine getrymmende mid &aelig; heofonlecan wegneste ond him ores lifes ingong gegearwode.
a g&aelig;t he frgn hu neah &aelig;re tide w&aelig;re tte a broor arisan scolden ond Godes lof r&aelig;ran ond heora uhtsong singan. a ondswaredon heo: "Nis hit feor to on." Cw he: "Teala: wuton we wel &aelig;re tide bidan." Ond a him gebd ond hine gesegnode mid Cristes rodetacne ond his heafod <a href="caedmon-notes.html#15" target="notes">onhylde</a> to am bolstre ond medmicel fc onslepte, ond swa mid stilnesse his lif geendade.
<BR><BR>Ond swa ws geworden tte swa swa <a href="caedmon-notes.html#16" target="notes">he</a> hluttre mode ond bilwitre ond smyltre wilsumnesse Drihtne eode, t he eac swylce swa smylte deae middangeard ws forl&aelig;tende ond to his gesihe becwom. Ond seo tunge e swa monig halwende word in s Scyppendes lof gesette, he a swelce eac a &aelig;tmstan word in his herenisse, hine seolfne segniende ond his gast in his honda bebeodende, <a href="caedmon-notes.html#18" target="notes">betynde</a>. Eac swelce t is gesegen t he w&aelig;re gewis his seolfes forfore of &aelig;m <a href="caedmon-notes.html#17" target="notes">&thorn;e</a> we nu secgan h&aelig;rdon.
<td class="c9"> <span class="c7">Ða ongan seo abbudisse clyppan ond lufigean þa Godes gife in þ&aelig;m men; ond heo hine þa monade ond l&aelig;rde þæt he woruldhad anforlete ond munuchad onfenge, ond he þæt wel þafode. Ond heo hine in þæt mynster onfeng mid his godum ond hine geþeodde to gesomnunge þara Godes þeowa; ond heht hine l&aelig;ran þæt getæl þæs halgan st&aelig;res ond spelles. Ond he eal þa he in geh&aelig;rnesse geleornian meahte mid hine gemyndgade, ond swa swa cl&aelig;ne neten eodorcende in þæt sweteste leoð <a href="caedmon-notes.html#11" target="notes">gehwerfde</a>. Ond his song ond his leoð w&aelig;ron swa wynsumu to geh&aelig;ranne þætte þa seolfan his lareowas æt his muðe wreoton ond leornodon. Song he &aelig;rest be middangeardes gesceape ond bi fruman moncynnes ond eal þæt st&aelig;r genesis (þæt is seo &aelig;reste Moyses booc), ond eft bi utgonge Israhela folces of Ægypta londe ond bi ingonge þæs gehatlandes, ond bi oðrum monegum spellum þæs halgan gewrites canones boca, ond bi Cristes menniscnesse ond bi his þrowunge ond bi his upastignesse in heofonas, ond bi þæs Halgan Gastes cyme ond þara apostola lare, ond eft bi þ&aelig;m dæge þæs toweardan domes ond bi fyrhtu þæs tintreglican wiites, ond bi swetnesse þæs heofonlecan rices he monig leoð geworhte. Ond swelce eac oðer monig be þ&aelig;m godcundan fremsumnessum ond domum he geworhte. In eallum þ&aelig;m he geornlice gemde þæt he men atuge from synna lufan ond mand&aelig;da, ond to lufan ond to geornfulnesse awehte godra d&aelig;da, for þon he wæs se mon swiþe &aelig;fest ond regollecum þeodscipum eaðmodlice underþeoded. Ond wið þ&aelig;m þa ðe in oðre wisan don woldon he wæs mid welme micelre ellenwodnisse onbærned, ond he for ðon fægre ænde his lif bet&aelig;nde ond geendade.
<BR><BR>For þon þa ð&aelig;re tide neal&aelig;cte his gewitenesse ond forðfore, þa wæs he feowert&aelig;num dagum &aelig;r þæt he wæs lichomlicre untrymnesse þrycced ond hefgad, hwæðre to þon gemetlice þæt he ealle þa tid meahte ge sprecan ge gongan. Wæs þ&aelig;r in neaweste untrumra monna hus, in þ&aelig;m heora þeaw wæs þæt heo þa <a href="caedmon-notes.html#12" target="notes">untruman</a> ond þa ðe æt forðfore w&aelig;ron in <a href="caedmon-notes.html#13" target="notes">l&aelig;dan</a> sceoldon ond him þ&aelig;r ætsomne þegnian. Þa bæd he his þegn on &aelig;fenne þ&aelig;re neahte þe he of worulde gongende wæs þæt he in þ&aelig;m huse him stowe gegearwode, þæt he gerestan meahte. Þa wundrode se þegn for hwon he ðæs b&aelig;de, for þon him þuhte þæt his forðfor swa neah ne w&aelig;re; dyde hwæðre swa swa he cwæð ond bibead.
Ond mid þ&aelig; he ða þ&aelig;r on reste eode ond he gefeonde mode sumu þing mid him sprecende ætgædere ond gleowiende wæs þe þ&aelig;r &aelig;r inne w&aelig;ron, þa wæs ofer midde neaht þæt he frægn hwæðer heo &aelig;nig husl inne hæfdon. Þa ondswarodon heo ond cw&aelig;don: "Hwylc þearf is ðe husles&aelig; Ne þinre forþfore swa neah is, nu þu þus rotlice ond þus glædlice to us sprecende eart." Cwæð he eft: "Berað me husl to." Þa he hit þa on honda hæfde, þa frægn he hwæþer heo ealle smolt mod ond, buton eallum incan, bliðe to him hæfdon. Þa ondswaredon h&aelig; ealle ond cw&aelig;don þæt heo n&aelig;nigne incan to him wiston, ac heo ealle him swiðe bliðemode w&aelig;ron; ond heo wrixendlice hine b&aelig;don þæt he him eallum bliðe w&aelig;re. Þa ondswarade he ond cwæð: "Mine broðor, mine þa leofan, ic eom swiðe bliðemod to eow ond to eallum Godes monnum." Ond <a href="caedmon-notes.html#14" target="notes">he</a> swa wæs hine getrymmende mid þ&aelig; heofonlecan wegneste ond him oðres lifes ingong gegearwode.
Þa g&aelig;t he frægn hu neah þ&aelig;re tide w&aelig;re þætte þa broðor arisan scolden ond Godes lof r&aelig;ran ond heora uhtsong singan. Þa ondswaredon heo: "Nis hit feor to þon." Cwæð he: "Teala: wuton we wel þ&aelig;re tide bidan." Ond þa him gebæd ond hine gesegnode mid Cristes rodetacne ond his heafod <a href="caedmon-notes.html#15" target="notes">onhylde</a> to þam bolstre ond medmicel fæc onslepte, ond swa mid stilnesse his lif geendade.
<BR><BR>Ond swa wæs geworden þætte swa swa <a href="caedmon-notes.html#16" target="notes">he</a> hluttre mode ond bilwitre ond smyltre wilsumnesse Drihtne þeode, þæt he eac swylce swa smylte deaðe middangeard wæs forl&aelig;tende ond to his gesihðe becwom. Ond seo tunge þe swa monig halwende word in þæs Scyppendes lof gesette, he ða swelce eac þa &aelig;tmæstan word in his herenisse, hine seolfne segniende ond his gast in his honda bebeodende, <a href="caedmon-notes.html#18" target="notes">betynde</a>. Eac swelce þæt is gesegen þæt he w&aelig;re gewis his seolfes forðfore of þ&aelig;m <a href="caedmon-notes.html#17" target="notes">&thorn;e</a> we nu secgan h&aelig;rdon.
<BR><BR>
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......@@ -378,7 +378,7 @@ Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum</i>, book IV chapter xxiv</span> </font>
<td nowrap="nowrap" class="c9">
<td class="c9">
<span class="c7">There was in this abbess's monastery a certain brother, particularly remarkable for the grace of God, who was wont to make pious and religious verses, so that whatever was interpreted to him out of Scripture, he soon after put the same into poetical expressions of much sweetness and humility, in English, which was his native language. By his verses the minds of many were often excited to despise the world, and to aspire to heaven. Others after him attempted, in the English nation, to compose religious poems, but none could ever compare with him, for he did not learn the art of poetry from men, but from God; for which reason he never could compose any trivial or vain poem, but only those which relate to religion suited his religious tongue; for having lived in a secular habit till he was well advanced in years, he had never learned anything of versifying; for which reason being sometimes at entertainments, when it was agreed for the sake of mirth that all present should sing in their turns, when he saw the instrument come towards him, he rose up from table and returned home.<BR>
Having done so at a certain time, and gone out of the house where the entertainment was, to the stable, where he had to take care of the horses that night, he there composed himself to rest at the proper time; a person appeared to him in his sleep, and saluting him by his name, said, "Caedmon, sing some song to me." He answered, "I cannot sing; for that was the reason why I left the entertainment, and retired to this place because I could not sing." The other who talked to him, replied, "However, you shall sing." "What shall I sing?" rejoined he. "Sing the beginning of created beings," said the other. Hereupon he presently began to sing verses to the praise of God, which he had never heard, the purport whereof was thus : </span>
Having done so at a certain time, and gone out of the house where the entertainment was, to the stable, where he had to take care of the horses that night, he there composed himself to rest at the proper time; a person appeared to him in his sleep, and saluting him by his name, said, "Caedmon, sing some song to me." He answered, "I cannot sing; for that was the reason why I left the entertainment, and retired to this place because I could not sing." The other who talked to him, replied, "However, you shall sing." ­ "What shall I sing?" rejoined he. "Sing the beginning of created beings," said the other. Hereupon he presently began to sing verses to the praise of God, which he had never heard, the purport whereof was thus : </span>
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......@@ -484,7 +484,7 @@ Sicque factum est ut ita quomodo simplici ac pura mente tranquillaque devotione
<span class="c7"><a href="caedmon-notes.html#lx10" target="notes">This is the sense, but not the words in order as he sang them in his sleep; for verses, though never so well composed, cannot be literally translated out of one language into another, without losing much of their beauty and loftiness.</a> Awaking from his sleep, he remembered all that he had sung in his dream, and soon added much more to the same effect in verse worthy of the Deity.<BR><BR>
In the morning he came to the steward, his superior, and having acquainted him with the gift he had received, was conducted to the abbess, by whom he was ordered, in the presence of many learned men, to tell his dream, and repeat the verses, that they might all give their judgment what it was, and whence his verse proceeded. They all concluded, that heavenly grace had been conferred on him by our Lord. They expounded to him a passage in holy writ, either historical, or doctrinal, ordering him, if he could, to put the same into verse. Having undertaken it, he went away, and returning the next morning, gave it to them composed in most excellent verse; whereupon the abbess, embracing the grace of God in the man, instructed him to quit the secular habit, and take upon him the monastic life; which being accordingly done, she associated him to the rest of the brethren in her monastery, and ordered that he should be taught the whole series of sacred history. Thus Caedmon--keeping in mind all he heard, and as it were chewing the cud, converted the same into most harmonious verse; and sweetly repeating the same, made his masters in their turn his hearers. He sang the creation of the world, the origin of man, and all the history of Genesis : and made many verses on the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and their entering into the land of promise, with many other histories from holy writ; the incarnation, passion, resurrection of our Lord, and his ascension into heaven; the coming of the Holy Ghost, and the preaching of the apostles ; also the terror of future judgment, the horror of the pains of hell, and the delights of heaven; besides many more about the Divine benefits and judgments, by which he endeavoured to turn away all men from the love of vice, and to excite in them the love of, and application to, good actions; for he was a very religious man, humbly submissive to regular discipline, but full of zeal against those who behaved themselves otherwise; for which reason he ended his life happily.
<BR><BR>
For when the time of his departure drew near, he laboured for the space of fourteen days under a bodily infirmity which seemed to prepare the way, yet so moderate that he could talk and walk the whole time. In his neighbourhood was the house to which those that were sick, and like shortly to die, were carried. He desired the person that attended him, in the evening, as the night came on in which he was to depart this life, to make ready a place there for him to take his rest. This person, wondering why he should desire it, because there was as yet no sign of his dying soon, did what he had ordered. He accordingly went there, and conversing pleasantly in a joyful manner with the rest that were in the house before, when it was past midnight, he asked them, whether they had the Eucharist there? They answered, "What need of the Eucharist? for you are not likely to die, since you talk so merrily with us, as if you were in perfect health." " However," said he, "bring me the Eucharist." Having received the same into his hand, he asked, whether they were all in charity with him, and without any enmity or rancour? They answered, that they were all in perfect charity, and free from anger; and in their turn asked him, whether he was in the same mind towards them? He answered, "I am in charity, my children, with all the servants of God." Then strengthening himself with the heavenly viaticum, he prepared for the entrance into another life, and asked, how near the time was when the brothers were to be awakened to sing the nocturnal praises of our Lord? They answered, "It is not far off." Then he said, "Well, let us wait that hour; " and signing himself with the sign of the cross, he laid his head on the pillow, and falling into a slumber, ended his life so in silence.<BR><BR>
For when the time of his departure drew near, he laboured for the space of fourteen days under a bodily infirmity which seemed to prepare the way, yet so moderate that he could talk and walk the whole time. In his neighbourhood was the house to which those that were sick, and like shortly to die, were carried. He desired the person that attended him, in the evening, as the night came on in which he was to depart this life, to make ready a place there for him to take his rest. This person, wondering why he should desire it, because there was as yet no sign of his dying soon, did what he had ordered. He accordingly went there, and conversing pleasantly in a joyful manner with the rest that were in the house before, when it was past midnight, he asked them, whether they had the Eucharist there? They answered, "What need of the Eucharist? for you are not likely to die, since you talk so merrily with us, as if you were in perfect health." ­" However," said he, "bring me the Eucharist." Having received the same into his hand, he asked, whether they were all in charity with him, and without any enmity or rancour? They answered, that they were all in perfect charity, and free from anger; and in their turn asked him, whether he was in the same mind towards them? He answered, "I am in charity, my children, with all the servants of God." Then strengthening himself with the heavenly viaticum, he prepared for the entrance into another life, and asked, how near the time was when the brothers were to be awakened to sing the nocturnal praises of our Lord? They answered, "It is not far off." Then he said, "Well, let us wait that hour; " and signing himself with the sign of the cross, he laid his head on the pillow, and falling into a slumber, ended his life so in silence.<BR><BR>
Thus it came to pass, that as he had served God with a simple and pure mind, and undisturbed devotion, so he now departed to his presence, leaving the world by a quiet death; and that tongue, which had composed so many holy words in praise of the Creator, uttered its last words whilst he was in the act of signing himself with the cross, and recommending himself into his hands, and by what has been here said, he seems to have had foreknowledge of his death.
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......@@ -1764,7 +1764,7 @@ OE text<br>
<br>
Latin text &amp; OE text apparently in same hand<a href="#dobbie01">*</a>
&nbsp;<br>
but there is no absolute consensus<a href="#kiernan01"></a> </font><br>
but there is no absolute consensus<a href="#kiernan01"></a> </font><br>
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......@@ -1803,7 +1803,7 @@ hand<a href="#dobbie01">*</a> </font><br>
<font size="-1"><b><a name="dobbie01"></a>* </b>= </font><font
size="-1">Dobbie says that the OE text appears to be added by the same
hand as the main Latin text</font><br>
<font size="-1"><b><a name="kiernan01"></a></b> = Kiernan says that 'the
<font size="-1"><b><a name="kiernan01"></a></b> = Kiernan says that 'the
"Hymn" [in the Leningrad Bede] was added by a different scribe with similar
but not identical handwriting. The distinguishing feature is the truncated
descender on the letters <i>f, p, r,</i> and <i>s,</i> compared to the long
......
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