.. module:: ase.transport :synopsis: Electron transport ================== Electron transport ================== The :mod:ase.transport module of ASE assumes the generic setup of the system in question sketched below: . . . |setup| . . . .. |setup| image:: transport_setup.png :align: middle There is a central region (blue atoms plus the molecule) connected to two semi-infinite leads constructed by infinitely repeated *principal layers* (red atoms). The entire structure may be periodic in the transverse direction, which can be effectively sampled using **k**-points (yellowish atoms). The system is described by a Hamiltonian matrix which must be represented in terms of a localized basis set such that each element of the Hamiltonian can be ascribed to either the left, central, or right region, *or* the coupling between these. The Hamiltonian can thus be decomposed as: .. math:: H = \begin{pmatrix} \ddots & V_L & & & \\ V_L^\dagger & H_L & V_L & & \\ & V_L^\dagger & H_C & V_R & \\ & & V_R^\dagger & H_R & V_R \\ & & & V_R^\dagger & \ddots \end{pmatrix} where H_{L/R} describes the left/right principal layer, and H_C the central region. V_{L/R} is the coupling between principal layers, *and* from the principal layers into the central region. The central region must contain at least one principal layer on each side, and more if the potential has not converged to its bulk value at this size. The central region is assumed to be big enough that there is no direct coupling between the two leads. The principal layer must be so big that there is only coupling between nearest neighbor layers. Having defined H_{L/R}, V_{L/R}, and H_C, the elastic transmission function can be determined using the Non-equilibrium Green Function (NEGF) method. This is achieved by the class: :class:~ase.transport.calculators.TransportCalculator (in ase.transport.calculators) which makes no requirement on the origin of these five matrices. .. autoclass:: TransportCalculator .. .. class:: ase.transport.calculators.TransportCalculator(energies, h, h1, h2, s=None, s1=None, s2=None, align_bf=False) Determine transport properties of device sandwiched between semi-infinite leads using non-equillibrium Green function methods. energies is the energy grid on which the transport properties should be determined. h1 (h2) is a matrix representation of the Hamiltonian of two principal layers of the left (right) lead, and the coupling between such layers. h is a matrix representation of the Hamiltonian of the scattering region. This must include at least on lead principal layer on each side. The coupling in (out) of the scattering region is assumed to be identical to the coupling between left (right) principal layers. s, s1, and s2 are the overlap matrices corresponding to h, h1, and h2. Default is the identity operator. If align_bf is True, the onsite elements of the Hamiltonians will be shifted to a common fermi level. This module is stand-alone in the sense that it makes no requirement on the origin of these five matrices. They can be model Hamiltonians or derived from different kinds of electronic structure codes. For an example of how to use the :mod:ase.transport module, see section 9.2 in the ASE-paper: J. Phys. Condens. Matter: The Atomic Simulation Environment | A Python library for working with atoms __ (7 June 2017).